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Literatur und weiterführende Links (EXPERT 19-24)

Wichtige Informationen

  1. Chronische Schmerzen
    1. S1-Leitlinie: Chronischer Schmerz; Stand: 30.09.2013, gültig bis 30.09.2018. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/053-036.html
  2. Neuropathische Schmerzen
    1. S1-Leitlinie: Neuropathische Schmerzen, Diagnostik; Stand: 30.09.2012, gültig bis 29.09.2017 (wird zur Zeit überarbeitet). https://eref.thieme.de/cockpits/clsport0001clNeuro0001/0/coNeuro00623/4-33742
    2. S2k-Leitlinie Diagnose und nicht interventionelle Therapie neuropathischer Schmerzen; Stand: 01.05.2019 , gültig bis 30.04.2024. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/030-114.html
  3. Therapie mit Opioidanalgetika
    1. S3-Leitlinie LONTS: Opioide, Langzeitanwendung zur Behandlung bei nicht tumorbedingten Schmerzen; Stand: 29.09.2014 , gültig bis 01.10.2019; Häuser W, Bock F, Engeser P, Tölle T, Willweber-Strumpf A, Petzke F: Clinical practice guideline: Long-term opioid use in non-cancer pain. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2014; 111: 732–40.
  4. Kopfschmerzen
    1. S1-Leitlinie: Kopfschmerz – Bildgebende Diagnostik; Stand: 01.03.2013, gültig bis 01.03.2018. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/064-011.html
    2. S1-Leitlinie: Kopfschmerz bei Übergebrauch von Schmerz- und Migränemitteln; Stand: 13.05.2018, gültig bis 12.05.2021. https://www.dgn.org/leitlinien/3629-ll-030-131-kopfschmerz-bei-uebergebrauch-von-schmerz-oder-migraenemitteln-2018
    3. Trigeminusneuralgie: Leitlinie wird derzeit überprüft. Abgelaufene Leitlinie derzeit nicht abrufbar.
    4. S1-Leitlinie: Migräne, Therapie. Stand: 30.09.2012 (in Überarbeitung), gültig bis 29.09.2017. Abgelaufene Leitlinie derzeit nicht abrufbar.
    5. S1-Leitlinie: Kopfschmerz, episodische und chronische vom Spannungstyp und andere chronische tägliche Kopfschmerzen, Therapie. Stand: 28.10.2014, gültig bis 27.10.2019. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/030-077.html
  5. Thoraxschmerz
    1. S3-Leitlinie: Brustschmerz. Leitlinie wird derzeit überprüft. Abgelaufene Leitlinie aufrufbar hier: https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/053-023.html
    2. S3-Leitlinie: Nationale Versorgungs-Leitlinie Chronische KHK. Stand: 01.04.2019 (in Überarbeitung), gültig bis 31.03.2024. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/nvl-004.html
  6. Bauchschmerzen
    1. S1-Leitlinie: Bauchschmerz – Bildgebende Diagnostik; Stand: 01.06.2017, gültig bis 01.06.2020. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/nvl-004.html
  7. Rückenschmerzen, Kreuzschmerzen, Schmerzen der Wirbelsäule
    1. S3-Leitlinie: Nationale Versorgungsleitlinie Kreuzschmerz. Stand: 31.12.2016, gültig bis 31.12.2021. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/nvl-007.html
    2. S1-Leitlinie: Rückenschmerz (nicht traumatisch) – Bildgebende Diagnostik; Stand: 01.06.2017, gültig bis 30.06.2020. Aufrufbar unter folgendem Link.
    3. S1-Leitlinie: Beschleunigungstrauma der Halswirbelsäule; Stand: 30.09.2012 (in Überarbeitung), gültig bis 29.09.2017. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/064-012.html
    4. S2k-Leitlinie: Bandscheibenvorfälle mit radikulärer Symptomatik, konservative und rehabilitative Versorgung. Stand: 31.07.2014, gültig bis 30.07.2019. https://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/033-048l_S2k_Bandscheibenvorfall_konservativ_rehabilitative_Versorgung_2014-07.pdf
    5. Nackenschmerzen: Stand: 31.06.2016, gültig bis 29.06.2021. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/053-007.html
  8. Postoperative und posttraumatische Schmerzen
    1. S3-Leitlinie: Behandlung akuter perioperativer und posttraumatischer Schmerzen. Leitlinie abgelaufen.
  9. Tumorschmerz und Palliativmedizin
    1. S3-Leitlinie: Palliativmedizin für Patienten mit einer nicht heilbaren Krebserkrankung. Stand: 27.08.2019, gültig bis 26.08.24. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/128-001OL.html
    2. S1-Leitlinie: Supportive Therapie bei onkologischen PatientInnen – interdisziplinäre Querschnitts-leitlinie. Stand: 11.11.2016, gültig bis 10.11.2021. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/032-054OL.html
  10. Komplexe regionale Schmerzsyndrome:
    1. S1-Leitlinie: Schmerzsyndrome (CRPS), komplexe regionale, Diagnostik und Therapie; Stand: 08.01.2018, gültig bis 07.01.2023. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/030-116.html
  11. Rheumatoide Arthritis
    1. S3 Leitlinie: Frühe rheumatoide Arthritis, Management. Leitlinie wird derzeit überprüft. Abgelaufene Leitlinie aufrufbar unter https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/060-002.html
  12. Fibromyalgie
    1. S3-Leitlinie: Fibromyalgiesyndrom: Definition, Pathophysiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie. Stand: 17.03.2017, gültig bis 16.03.2022. https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/145-004.html

Literaturrecherche Schmerztherapie

Recherchedatenbanken

Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed)

Springermedizin (http://www.springermedizin.de)

Uptodate (http://www.uptodate.com)

Clinicalkey (http://www.clinicalkey.com)

AccessMedicine (http://www.accessmedicine.com)

AccessPharmacy (http://www.accesspharmacy.com)

Ermittlung der bedeutendsten Leitlinien

http://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/leitlinien-suche.html

https://www.guideline.gov/ (Stichwort pain)

Schmerzgrundkenntnisse und Charakteristika spezieller Schmerzkrankheiten (EXPERT 19)

[1] Baron R, Binder A, Wasner G. Neuropathic Pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 807– 819

[2] Treede RD, Jensen TS, Campbell JN et al. Neuropathic pain: redefinition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes. Neurology 2008; 70:1630–1635

[3] Rolke R, Birklein F. Neuropathische Komponente bei Tumorschmerzen: Ein Leitfaden für Diagnostik und Therapie. Angew Schmerzther Palliativmed 2010; 2:1–10

[4] Daousi C, MacFarlane IA, Woodward A, Nurmikko TJ, Bundred PE, Benbow SJ. Chronic painful peripheral neuropathy in an urban community: a controlled comparison of people with and without diabetes. Diabet Med 2004; 21: 976–982

[5] Schele HA, Kloke M. Schmerzen bei Tumorerkrankungen. In: Diener HC, Maier C (Hrsg) Die Schmerztherapie. Urban & Fischer 2009, Jena, S 231–250

[6] Di Maio M, Gridelli C, Gallo C, et al. Prevalence and management of pain in Italian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:2288–2296.

[7] Deandrea S, Montanari M, Moja L, Apolone G. Prevalence of undertreatment in cancer pain. A review of published literature. Ann Oncol 2008; 12:1985–1991

[8] Klepstad P, Kaasa S, Cherny N et al. Pain and pain treatments in European palliative care units. A cross sectional survey from the European Association for Palliative Care Research Network. Palliat Med 2005;19:477–484

[9] Paice JA, Cohen FL. Validity of a verbally administered numeric rating scale to measure cancer pain intensity. Cancer Nursing, 1997; 20, 88–93.

[10] http://www.dgss.org/fileadmin/pdf/12_DSF_Anamnese_Muster_2012.2.pdf

[11] http://www.deutsches-kinderschmerzzentrum.de/ueber-uns/frageboegen-und-tagebuecher/

 

Schmerzen in bestimmten Körperregionen (EXPERT 19)

[1] Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia 2018, Vol. 38(1) 1–211

[2] Schwartz BS, Stewart WF, Simon D et al. Epidemiology of tension-type headache. JAMA 1998; 279: 381–383

[3] Silberstein SD, Lipton RB. Epidemiology of migraine. Neuroepidemiology 1993; 12: 179–194

[4] Kavuk I YA, Cetindere U, Agelink MW et al. Epidemiology of chronic daily headache. Eur J Med Res 2003; 8: 236–240

[5] Teepker M, Schepelmann K: Ätiologie und Diagnostik von Kopf- und Gesichtsschmerzen aus neurologischer Sicht. HNO 2007; 55, 524-531

[6] Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS) The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia 2013; 33(9):629–808

[7] Schmidt CO, Kohlmann T. Was wissen wir über das Symptom Rückenschmerz? Epidemiologische Ergebnisse zu Prävalenz, Inzidenz, Verlauf, Risikofaktoren. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 2005;143(3):292-8

[8] Baumeister H, Härter M. Psychische Komorbidität bei muskuloskelettalen Erkrankungen. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 2011; 54(1):52–58

[9] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermatom_(Anatomie)

[10] Henschke N, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Bleasel J, York J, Das A, McAuley JH. Prevalence of and screening for serious spinal pathology in patients presenting to primary care settings with acute low back pain. Arthritis Rheum 2009;60(10):3072-80

[11] Henschke N, Maher CG, Refshauge KM. A systematic review identifies five “red flags” to screen for vertebral fracture in patients with low back pain. J Clin Epidemiol 2008;61(2):110-8

[12] Pengel LH, Herbert RD, Maher CG, Refshauge KM. Acute low back pain: systematic review of its prognosis. BMJ. 2003 Aug 9;327(7410):323.

[13] Deyo RA, Rainville J, Kent DL. What can the history and physical examination tell us about low back pain? JAMA 1992;268(6):760-5

[14] Hallner D, Hasenbring M. Classification of psychosocial risk factors (yellow flags) for the development of chronic low back and leg pain using artificial neural network. Neurosci Lett 2004;361(1-3):151-4

[15] Grotle M, Vollestad NK, Brox JI. Screening for yellow flags in first-time acute low back pain: reliability and validity of a Norwegian version of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire. Clin J Pain 2006;22(5):458-67

[16] Buntinx F, Knockaert D, Bruyninckx R, de Blaey N, Aerts M, Knottnerus JA, Delooz H (2001) Chestpain in general practice or in the hospital emergency department: is it the same? FamPract18:586–589

[17] Verdon F, Burnand B, Herzig L, JunodM, Pécoud A, Favrat B (2007) Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study. BMC Fam Pract8:51

[18] Le Gal G, Testuz A, Righini M, Bounameaux H, Perrier A (2005) Reproduction of chest pain by palpation: diagnostic accuracy in suspected pulmonary embolism.BMJ330:452–453

[19] Schele HA, Kloke M. Schmerzen bei Tumorerkrankungen. In: Diener HC, Maier C (Hrsg) Die Schmerztherapie. Urban & Fischer 2009, Jena, S 231–250

[20] Di Maio M, Gridelli C, Gallo C, et al. Prevalence and management of pain in Italian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:2288–2296.

[21] Deandrea S, Montanari M, Moja L, Apolone G. Prevalence of undertreatment in cancer pain. A review of published literature. Ann Oncol 2008; 12:1985–1991

[22] Klepstad P, Kaasa S, Cherny N et al. Pain and pain treatments in European palliative care units. A cross sectional survey from the European Association for Palliative Care Research Network. Palliat Med 2005;19:477–484

[23] Aiello-Laws L, Reynolds J, Deizer N, Peterson M, Ameringer S, Bakitas M. Putting evidence into practice: what are the pharmacologic interventions for nociceptive and neuropathic cancer pain in adults? Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2009;13:649-55.

[24] Kumar SP, Saha S. Mechanism-based classification of pain for physical therapy in palliative care: A critical review. Indian J Palliat Care. 2011;17:80–6.

[25] Banning A, Sjøgren P, Henriksen H. Pain causes in 200 patients referred to a multidisciplinary cancer pain clinic. Pain. 1991;45:45-8.

[26] Bennett MI, Rayment C, Hjermstad M, Aass N, Caraceni A, Kaasa S. Prevalence and aetiology of neuropathic pain in cancer patients: A systematic review. Pain 2012; 153:359-365.

[27] Morel J, Deschamps V, Toussirot E et al. Characteristics and survival of 26 patients with paraneoplastic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67:244–247

 

Nichtselektive Cyclooxygenase-Hemmer (EXPERT 20)

[1] Crofford LJ, Lipsky PE, Brooks P, Abramson SB, Simon LS, van de Putte LB. Basic biology and clinical application of specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:4-13

[2] Vane J R. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs. Nature New Biology 1971; 231:232–235

[3] Forman JP, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Non-narcotic analgesic dose and risk of incident hypertension in US women. Hypertension. 2005;46:500-7.

[4] Howard PA, Delafontaine P. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:519-525

[5] Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A et al. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 343:1520–1528

 

Nichtsteroidale Analgetika – Nicht-selektive Hemmer der Cyclooxygenase-2 (EXPERT 20)

[1] Steffen P, Krinn E, Möller A, Seeling W. Metamizol and diclofenac profoundly reduce opioid consumption after minor trauma surgery. Acute Pain 2002; 4:71–75

[2] Michelet D, Andreu-Gallien J, Bensalah T et al. A meta-analysis of the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pediatric postoperative pain. Anesth Analg 2012; 114:393–406

[3] Verordnung über die Verschreibungspflicht von Arzneimitteln (Arzneimittelverschreibungsverordnung – AMVV), www.gesetze-im-internet.de

[4] Collins SL, Moore RA, McQuay HJ et al. Single dose oral ibuprofen and diclofenac for postoperative pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 2:CD001548

[5] Shi S, Klotz U. Clinical use and pharmacological properties of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 64: 233–252

[6] Grosser T. The pharmacology of selective inhibition of COX-2. Thromb Haemost.  2006;96:393-400.

[7] Schug SA. Postoperative pain therapy. The use of COX-2 inhibitors. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2010; 45:56–60

[8] Jaksch W, Dejaco C, Schirmer M. 4 years after withdrawal of rofecoxib: where do we stand today? Rheumatol Int 2008; 28:1187–1195

[9] Altman RD, Latta LL, Keer R et al. Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on fracture healing: a laboratory study in rats. J Orthop Trauma 1995; 392–400

[10] Harder AT, An YH. The mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on bone healing: a concise review. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43:807–815

[11] Kokki H. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for postoperative pain: a focus on children. Paediatr Drugs 2003; 5:103–123

 

Acetysalicylsäure (EXPERT 20)

[1] Sevelius H, Segre E, Bursick K. Comparative analgesic effects of naproxen sodium, aspirin, and placebo. J Clin Pharmacol. 1980;20:480-485.

[2] Levy G. Clinical pharmacokinetics of aspirin. Pediatrics. 1978;62:867-872.

[3] Catella-Lawson F, Reilly MP, Kapoor SC, et al. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the antiplatelet effect of aspirin. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1809-1817.

[4] Lanza FL. A review of gastric ulcer and gastroduodenal injury in normal volunteers receiving aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989;24:24-31.

[5] Douthwaite AH, Lintott SAM. Gastroscopic observation of the effect of aspirin and certain other substances on the stomach. Lancet. 1938;2:1222-1225.

[6] Fored CM, Ejerblad E, Lindblad P, et al. Acetaminophen, aspirin, and chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1801-1808.

[7] Kim SH, Jeong HH, Cho BY, et al. Association of four-locus gene interaction with aspirin-intolerant asthma in Korean asthmatics. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:336-342.

[8] Awa K, Satoh H, Hori S, Sawada Y. Prediction of time-dependent interaction of  aspirin with ibuprofen using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2012;37:469-74.

[9] Corey L, Rubin RJ, Hattwick MAW, Noble GR, Cassidy E. A nationwide outbreak of Reye’s syndrome: its epidemiologic relationship to influenza B. Am J Med 1976;61:615-625

[10] Reye RDK, Morgan G, Baral J. Encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of the viscera: a disease entity in childhood. Lancet 1963;2:749-752

[11] Kozer E, Nikfar S, Costei A, et al. Aspirin consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy and congenital anomalies: a metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:1623-1630.

[12] James A, Branczio L, Price T. Aspirin and reproductive outcomes. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007;63:49-57.

[13] Stuart JJ, Gross SJ, Elrad H, et al. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid ingestion on maternal and neonatal hemostasis. N Engl J Med. 1982;307:909-912.

 

Nichtsteroidale Analgetika – Selektive Hemmer der Cyclooxygenase-2 (EXPERT 20)

[1] Flower R J. The development of COX2 inhibitors. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 2003; 2:179–191

[2] Baron JA, Sandler RS, Bresalier RS, Lanas A, Morton DG, Riddell R, Iverson ER, Demets DL. Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib: final analysis of the APPROVe trial. Lancet. 2008;372:1756-64.

[3] Gajraj NM. COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and parecoxib: valuable options for postoperative pain management. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7:235-49.

[4] Fitzgerald G A, Patrono C. The coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 345:433–442

[5] Davies NM, McLachlan AJ, Day RO, Williams KM. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of celecoxib: a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000;38:225-42.

[6] Sawitzke AD, Shi H, Finco MF, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:1459-64.

[7] Takemoto JK, Reynolds JK, Remsberg CM, Vega-Villa KR, Davies NM. Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of etoricoxib. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47:703-20.

[8] Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: the CLASS study: A randomized controlled trial. Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study. JAMA. 2000;284:1247-55.

[9] Singh G, Fort JG, Goldstein JL, et al; SUCCESS-I Investigators. Celecoxib versus naproxen and diclofenac in osteoarthritis patients: SUCCESS-I Study. Am J Med. 2006;119:255-66.

[10] O’Connor JP, Lysz T. Celecoxib, NSAIDs and the skeleton. Drugs Today (Barc) 2008;44:693-709.

[11] Ahmad SR, Kortepeter C, Brinker A, Chen M, Beitz J. Renal failure associated with the use of celecoxib and rofecoxib. Drug Saf. 2002;25:537-44.

[12] De Vecchis R, Baldi C, Di Biase G, et al. Cardiovascular risk associated with celecoxib or etoricoxib: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials which adopted comparison with placebo or naproxen. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2014;62:437-48.

[13] Cannon CP, Curtis SP, Fitzgerald GA, et al; MEDAL Steering  Committee. Cardiovascular outcomes with etoricoxib and diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in the Multinational Etoricoxib and  Diclofenac Arthritis Long-term (MEDAL) programme: a randomised comparison. Lancet. 2006;368:1771-81.

 

Nicht saure antipyretische Analgetika (EXPERT 20)

[1] Prescott LF. Paracetamol (Acetaminophen): A Critical Bibliographic Review. 2nd ed. Florence, Ky: Routledge; 2001.

[2] Pendleton A, Arden N, Dougados M, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2000;59:936-944.

[3] American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: 2000 update. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:1905-1915.

[4] Pincus T, Koch G, Lei H, et al. Patient preference for Placebo, Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) or Celecoxib Efficacy Studies (PACES): two randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover clinical trials in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63:931-939.

[5] Brandt KD, Mazzuca SA, Buckwalter KA. Acetaminophen, like conventional NSAIDs, may reduce synovitis in osteoarthritic knees. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:1389-1394.

[6] Towheed TE, Judd MJ, Hochberg MC, et al. Acetaminophen for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;2:CD004257.

[7] Shen H, Sprott H, Aeschlimann A, et al. Analgesic action of acetaminophen in symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology. 2006;45:765-770.

[8] Zhang W, Jones A, Doherty M. Does paracetamol (acetaminophen) reduce the pain of osteoarthritis? a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63:901–907

[9] Lucas R, Warner TD, Vojnovic I, et al. Cellular mechanisms of acetaminophen: role of cyclo-oxygenase. FASEB J. 2005;19:635-637.

[10] Heading RC, Nimmo J, Prescott LF, et al. The dependence of paracetamol absorption on the rate of gastric emptying. Br J Pharmacol. 1973;47:415-421.

[11] Lauterburg BH. Analgesics and glutathione. Am J Ther. 2002;9: 225-233.

[12] Kurtovic J, Riordan SM. Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity at recommended dosage. J Intern Med. 2003;253:240-243.

[13] Kurth T, Hennekens CH, Sturmer T, et al. Analgesic use and risk of subsequent hypertension in apparently healthy men. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1903-1909.

[14] Dedier J, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE, et al. Non-narcotic analgesic use and the risk of hypertension in U.S. women. Hypertension. 2002;40:604-608.

[15] Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rosner B, et al. Frequency of analgesic use and risk of hypertension in younger women. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2204-2208.

[16] Hylek EM, Heiman H, Skates SJ, et al. Acetaminophen and other risk factors for excessive warfarin anticoagulation. JAMA. 1998;279:657-662.

[17] Gadisseur AP, Van Der Meer FJ, Rosendaal FR. Sustained intake of paracetamol (acetaminophen) during oral anticoagulant therapy with coumarins does not cause clinically important INR changes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:714-717.

[18] Gebauer MG, Nyfort-Hansen K, Henschke PJ, et al. Warfarin and acetaminophen interaction. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23:109-112.

[19] Fored CM, Ejerblad E, Lindblad P, et al. Acetaminophen, aspirin, and chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1801-1808

[20] Hansten PD, Horn JR. Cytochrome P450 enzymes and drug interactions. In: The Top 100 Drug Interactions—A Guide to Patient Management. Edmonds, Wash: H&H Publications; 2005:157-170.

[21] Whitcomb DC, Block GD. Association of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with fasting and ethanol use. JAMA. 1994;272:1845-1850.

[22] Rumack BH. Acetaminophen misconceptions. Hepatology. 2004; 40:10-15.

[23] Toes MJ, Jones AL, Prescott L. Drug interactions with paracetamol. Am J Ther. 2005;12:56-66.

[24] Graham GG, Davies MJ, Day RO, et al. The modern pharmacology of paracetamol: therapeutic actions, mechanism of action, metabolism, toxicity and recent pharmacological findings. Inflammopharmacology 2013;21:201–232.

[25] Thummel KE, Slattery JT, Ro H, et al. Ethanol and production of the hepatotoxic metabolite of acetaminophen in healthy adults. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;67:591-599.

[26] Carlsson KH, Helmreich J, Jurna I. Activation of inhibition from the periaqueductal grey matter mediates central analgesic effects of metamizol. Pain 1986; 27:373–390

[27] Hinz B, Cheremina O, Bachmakov J et al. Dipyrone elicits substantial inhibition of peripheral cyclooxygenases in humans: new insights into the pharmacology of an old analgesic. FASEB J 2007; 21:2343–2345

[28] Rogosch T, Sinning C, Podlewski A et al. Novel bioactive metabolites of dipyrone (metamizol). Bioorg Med Chem 2012; 20:101–107

[29] Aguirre-Bañuelos P, Granados-Soto V. Evidence for a peripheral mechanism of action for the potentiation of the antinociceptive effect of morphine by dipyrone. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1999; 42:79–85

[30] Alves D, Duarte I. Involvement of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect induced by dipyrone. Eur J Pharmacol 2002; 444:47–52

[31] Arzneimittelkommission der Deutschen Ärzteschaft. Agranulozytose nach Metamizol- selten, aber häufiger als gedacht. Dtsch Ärztebl 2011;108:1758–1799

[32] http://www.bfarm.de.

[33] Steffen P, Krinn E, Möller A, Seeling W (2002) Metamizol and diclofenac profoundly reduce opioid consumption after minor trauma surgery. Acute Pain 2002; 4:71–75

[34] Spacek A, Goraj E, Neiger FX et al. Superior postoperative analgesic efficacy of a continuous infusion of tramadol and dipyrone (metamizol) versus tramadol alone. Acute Pain 2003; 5:3–9

[35] Tempel G, Hundelshausen B von, Reeker W et al (1996) The opiate-sparing effect of dipyrone in post-operative pain therapy with morphine using a patient-controlled analgesic system. Intensive Care Med 1996; 22: 043–1047

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[37] Fendrich Z. Metamizol -a new effective analgesic with a long history. Overview of its pharmacology and clinical use. Cas Lek Cesk 2000; 139:440–444

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[41] Beirith A, Santos AR, Rodrigues AL et al. Spinal and supraspinal antinociceptive action of dipyrone in formalin, capsaicin and glutamate tests. Study of the mechanism of action. Eur J Pharmacol 1998; 345:233–245

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[45] Pierre SC, Schmidt R, Brenneis C et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases by dipyrone. Br J Pharmacol 2007; 51:494–503

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[47] Hamerschlag N, Cavalcanti AB. Neutropenia, agranulocytosis and dipyrone. Sao Paulo Med J 2005; 123:247–249

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[49] Mérida RL, Faus FV, Poveda Gómez F, Garcia AJ. Agranulocytosis from metamizole: a potential problem for the British population. Rev Clin Esp 2009; 209:176–179

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[73] Bentur Y, Cohen O. Dipyrone overdose. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2004; 42:261–265

 

Allgemeine Aspekte der Therapie mit Opioiden (EXPERT 21)

[1] Potter M, Schafer S, Gonzalez-Mendez F, et al. Opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain: attitudes and practices of primary care physicians in the UCSF/Stanford Collaborative Research Network. University of California, San Francisco. J Fam Pract. 2001;50:145-151.

[2] Chou R, Fanciullo GJ, Fine PG, Adler JA, Ballantyne JC, Davies P et al. Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain. J Pain 2009; 10: 113–130

[3] Morlion B. Pharmacotherapy of low back pain: targeting nociceptive and neuropathic pain components. Curr Med Res Opin 2011; 27: 11–33

[4] Jordan B, Devi LA. Molecular mechanisms of opioid receptor signal transduction. Br J Anaesth 1988; 81: 12–19

[5] Pert CB, Snyder SH. Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science 1973; 179: 1011–1014

[6] Busch-Dienstfertig M, Stein C. Opioid receptors and opioid peptide-producing leukocytes in inflammatory pain–basic and therapeutic aspects. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:683–94.

[7] Pert CB, Snyder SH. Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science. 1973;179:1011-1014.

[8] Besse D, Lombard MC, Zajac JM, et al. Pre- and post-synaptic distribution of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors in the superficial layers of the cervical dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1990;521:15-22.

[9] Jordan B, Devi LA. Molecular mechanisms of opioid receptor signal transduction. Br J Anaesth 199881: 12–19

[10] Raynor K, Kong H, Chen Y et al. Pharmacological characterization of the cloned kappa-, delta-, and mu-opioid receptors. Mol Pharmacol 1994; 45: 330–334

[11] Christie MJ, Connor M, Vaughan CW et al. Cellular actions of opioids and other analgesics: implications for synergism in pain relief. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2000; 27: 520–523

[12] Landau R. One size does not fit all: genetic variability of mu‐opioid receptor and postoperative morphine consumption. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: 235–7.

[13] Gammaitoni AR, Fine P, Alvarez N et al. Clinical application of opioid equianalgesic data. Clin J Pain 2003;19: 286–97.

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[15] Portenoy RK. Current pharmacotherapy of chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;19(suppl 1):S16-S20.

[16] Reder RF. Opioid formulations: tailoring to the needs in chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2001;5(suppl A):109-111.

[17] Mercadante S, Fulfaro F. Alternatives to oral opioids for cancer pain. Oncology (Williston Park). 1999;13:215-220.

[18] Joo DT. Mechanisms of opioid tolerance: merging evidence and therapeutic implications. Can J Anaesth 2007; 54: 969–76.

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[20] Chu LF, Clark DJ & Angst MS. Opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients after one month of oral morphine therapy: a preliminary prospective study. J Pain 2006;7: 43–8.

[21] Cohen SP, Christo PJ, Wang S et al. The effect of opioid dose and treatment duration on the perception of a painful standardized clinical stimulus. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2008;33: 199–206.

[22] De Kock MF, Pichon G & Scholtes JL. Intraoperative clonidine enhances postoperative morphine patient‐controlled analgesia. Can J Anaesth 1992;39: 537–44.

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[24] Galer BS, Lee D, Ma T, et al. MorphiDex (morphine sulfate/dextromethorphan hydrobromide combination) in the treatment of chronic pain: three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials fail to demonstrate enhanced opioid analgesia or reduction in tolerance. Pain. 2005;115:284-295.

[25] Aubrun F, Gaillat C, Rosenthal D et al. Effect of a low‐dose ketamine regimen on pain, mood, cognitive function and memory after major gynaecological surgery: a randomized, double‐blind, placebocontrolled trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008;25: 97–105.

[26] Lossignol DA, Obiols-Portis M, Body JJ. Successful use of ketamine for intractable cancer pain. Support Care Cancer. 2005;13:188-193.

[27] Subramaniam K, Subramaniam B, Steinbrook RA. Ketamine as adjuvant analgesic to opioids: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:482-895.

[28] Adam F, Chauvin M, Du Manoir B et al. Small‐dose ketamine infusion improves postoperative analgesia and rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg 2005;100: 475–80.

[29] Fishbain DA, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS. Drug abuse, dependence and addiction in chronic pain patients. Clin J Pain. 1992;8:77-85.

[30] Wise RA. Neurobiology of addiction. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1996;6: 243-251.

[31] Kalivas PW, Volkow ND. The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1403-1413.

[32] Lyvers M. Drug addiction as a physical disease: the role of physical dependence and other chronic drug-induced neurophysiological changes in compulsive drug self-administration. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998;6:107-125.

[33] American Society of Addiction Medicine. Public policy statement on definitions related to the use of opioids in pain treatment. J Addict Dis. 1998;17:129-133.

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[35] Ahmedzai S, Brooks D. Transdermal fentanyl versus sustainedrelease oral morphine in cancer pain: preference, efficacy, and quality of life. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1997;13:254-261.

[36] Ramsin B, Trescot A, Datta S, et al. Opioid complications and side effects. Pain Physician. 2008;11:S105-S120.

[37] Wilsey BL, Mahajan GM, Fishman SM. Opioid therapy in chronic non-malignant pain. In: Smith HS, ed. Drugs for Pain. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus; 2003:119-131.

[38] Jones JG, Sapsford DJ & Wheatley RG. Postoperative hypoxaemia: mechanisms and time course. Anaesthesia 1990;45(7): 566–73.

[39] Bruera E, Macmillan K, Hanson J, et al. The cognitive effects of the administration of narcotic analgesics in patients with cancer pain. Pain. 1989;39:13-16.

[40] Zacny JP. A review of the effects of opiates on psychomotor and cognitive functioning in humans. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995;3:432-466.

[41] Fishbain DA, Cutlet RB, Rosomoff HL, et al. Are opioid dependent/ tolerant patients impaired in driving-related skills? A structured evidence-based review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;25:38-47.

[42] Sabotowski R, Schwalen S, Rettig K, et al. Driving ability under long-term treatment with transdermal fentanyl. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;25:38-47.

[43] Zacny JP. Should people taking opioids for medical reasons be allowed to work and drive? Addiction. 1996;91:1581-1584.

[44] Foss JF, Bass AS, Goldberg LI. Dose-related antagonism of the emetic effect of morphine by methylnaltrexone in dogs. J Clin Pharmacol. 1993;33:747-751.

[45] Simoneau II , Hamza MS, Mata HP, et al. The cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 suppresses opioid-induced emesis in ferrets. Anesthesiology. 2001;94:882-887.

[46] Frederich ME. Nonpain symptom management. Prim Care. 2001;28:299-316.

[47] DeLuca A, Coupar IM. Insights into opioid action in the intestinal tract. Pharmacol Ther. 1996;69:103-115.

[48] Polack JM, Bloom SR. Neuropeptides of the gut: a newly discovered control mechanism. World J Surg. 1979;3:393-405.

[49] Radbruch L, Sabotowski R, Loick G, et al. Constipation and the use of laxatives: a comparison between transdermal fentanyl and oral morphine. Palliat Med. 2000;14:111-119.

[50] Choi YS, Billings JA. Opioid antagonists: a review of their role in palliative care, focusing on use in opioid-related constipation. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002;24:71-79.

[51] Sjogren P, Dragsted L, Christensen CB. Myoclonic spasms during treatment with high doses of intravenous morphine in renal failure. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1993; 37: 780–782

[52] Adunsky A, Levy R, Heim M et al. Meperidine analgesia and delirium in aged hip fracture patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2002;35: 253–9.

[53] Kjellberg F & Tramer MR. Pharmacological control of opioid‐induced pruritus: a quantitative systematic review of randomized trials. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2001;18: 346–57.

[54] Ganesh A & Maxwell LG. Pathophysiology and management of opioid‐induced pruritus. Drugs 2007;67: 2323–33.

[55] Charuluxananan S, Kyokong O, Somboonviboon W, et al. Nalbuphine versus ondansetron for prevention of intrathecal morphine- induced pruritus after cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:1789-1793.

[56] Wilsey BL, Mahajan GM, Fishman SM. Opioid therapy in chronic non-malignant pain. In: Smith HS, ed. Drugs for Pain. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus; 2003:119-131.

[57] Charuluxanan S, Kyokong O, Somboonviboon W, et al. Nalbuphine versus propofol for treatment of intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus after cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:162-165.

[58] Chuang TK, Killam KF Jr, Chuang LF, et al. Mu opioid receptor gene expression in immune cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;216:922-930.

[59] Peterson PK, Molitor TW, Chao CC. The opioid-cytokine connection. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;83:63-69.

[60] Daniell HW. Opioid endocrinopathy in women consuming prescribed sustained-action opioids for control of nonmalignant pain. J Pain. 2008;9:28-36.

[61] Daniell HW. Hypogonadism in men consuming sustained-action oral opioids. J Pain. 2002;3:377-384.

[62] Abs R, Verhelst J, Maeyaert J, et al. Endocrine consequences of long-term intrathecal administration of opioids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:2215-2222.

[63] Oltmanns KM, Fehm HL, Peters A. Chronic fentanyl application induces adrenocortical insufficiency. J Intern Med. 2005;257: 478-480.

[64] Daniell HW. DHEAS deficiency during consumption of sustainedaction prescribed opioids: evidence for opioid-induced inhibition of adrenal androgen production. J Pain. 2006;7:901-907.

[65] Mendelson JH, Mello NK. Plasma testosterone levels during chronic heroin use and protracted abstinence: a study of Hong Kong addicts. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1975;17:529-533.

[66] Dimsdale JE, Norman D, DeJardin D, et al. The effect of opioids on sleep architecture. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:33-36.

[67] Shaw IR, Lavigne G, Mayer P, et al. Acute intravenous administration of morphine perturbs sleep architecture in healthy pain-free young adults: a preliminary study. Sleep. 2005;28:677-682.

[68] Pickworth WB, Neidert GL, Kay DC. Morphine like arousal by methadone during sleep. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;30:796-804.

[69] Chang G, Chen L & Mao J. Opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia. Med Clin North Am 2007;91: 199–211.

[70] Chu LF, Angst MS & Clark D. Opioid‐induced hyperalgesia in humans: molecular mechanisms and clinical considerations. Clin J Pain 2008;24: 479–96.

[71] Angst MS & Clark JD. Opioid‐induced hyperalgesia: a qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology 2006; 104(3): 570–87.

[72] Price DD, Mayer DJ, Mao J, et al. NMDA-receptor antagonists and opioid receptor interactions as related to analgesia and tolerance. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;19(suppl 1):S7-S11.

[73] Zhao M, Joo DT. Subpopulation of dorsal horn neurons displays enhanced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function after chronic morphine exposure. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:815-825.

[74] Gowing LR, Farrell M, Ali RL, White JM. α2-adrenergic agonists in opioid withdrawal. Addiction 2002; 97: 49–58

[75] Bruera E, Peirera J, Watanabe C, Belzile M, Kuehn N, Hanson J. Opioid rotation in patients with cancer pain. A retrospective comparison of dose ratios between methadone, hydromorphone, and morphine. Cancer 1996; 78: 852–857

[76] Indelicato R, Portenoy RK. The art of oncology: when the tumor is not the target: opioid rotation in the management of refractory cancer pain. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:348-352.

[77] Volpi-Abadie J et al. Serotonin Syndrome. Ochsner J. 2013;13:533-40.

[78] Sternbach H. The serotonin syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:705-13.

[79] Gillman PK. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. Br J Anaesth. 2005;95:434-41.

[80] Cascorbi I. Drug interactions – principles, examples and clinical consequences. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2012;109:546-56.

[81] Rastogi R et al. Case scenario: opioid association with serotonin syndrome: implications to the practitioners. Anesthesiology. 2011;115:1291-8.

[82] de Leon-Casasola OA. Opioids for chronic pain: new evidence, new strategies, safe prescribing. Am J Med. 2013;126:S3-11.

 

Schwache Opioide (EXPERT 21)

[1] Arkinstall W, Sandler A, Goughnour B, et al. Efficacy of controlled release codeine in chronic non-malignant pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pain. 1995;62:169-178.

[2] Schulz R, Blasig J, Wuster M, Herz A. The opiate-like action of tilidine is mediated by metabolites. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1978;304:89–93.

[3] Seiler KU et al. Pharmacokinetics of tilidine in terminal renal failure. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2001; 41:79–84

[4] Flöter T, Brunnmüller U. Tilidine/naloxon retard in long-term administration in chronic pain and multimorbidity. Multicenter study of long-term tolerance and effectiveness in 2 years observation. Fortschr Med Orig. 2002;120:29–35

[5] Radbruch L, Glaeske G, Grond S, Münchberg F, Scherbaum N, Storz E, Tholen K, Zagermann-Muncke P, Zieglgänsberger W, Hoffmann-Menzel H, Greve H, Cremer-Schaeffer P. Topical review on the abuse and misuse potential of tramadol and tilidine in Germany. Subst Abus. 2013;34:313-20.

 

Stark und sehr stark wirksame Opioide (EXPERT 21)

[1] Faura CC, Collins SL, Moore RA et al. Systematic review of factors affecting the ratios of morphine and its major metabolites. Pain 1998; 74: 43–53.

[2] Peterson GM, Randall CT, Paterson J. Plasma levels of morphine and morphine glucuronides in the treatment of cancer pain: relationship to renal function and route of administration. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990;38:121-124.

[3] Inturrisi CE. Clinical pharmacology of opioids for pain. Clin J Pain. 2002;18:S3-S13.

[4] Cann C, Curran J, Milner T et al. Unwanted effects of morphine‐6‐glucoronide and morphine. Anaesthesia 2002; 57: 1200–3.

[5] Lalovic B, Kharasch E, Hoffer C et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral oxycodone in healthy human subjects: role of circulating active metabolites. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006;79: 461–79.

[6] Sarhill N, Declan W, Nelson KA. Hydromorphone: pharmacology and clinical applications in cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2001;9:84-96.

[7] Coda B, Tanaka A, Jacobson RC, et al. Hydromorphone analgesia after intravenous bolus administration. Pain 1997;71:41-48.

[8] Mervyn D. Opioids in renal failure and dialysis patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004;28:497-504.

[9] Johnson RE, Fudala PJ & Payne R. Buprenorphine: considerations for pain management. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29: 297–326.

[10] Hans G. Buprenorphine–a review of its role in neuropathic pain. J Opioid Manag 2007;3: 195–206.

[11] Strumpf M, Willweber-Strumpf A, Zenz M. Tumorschmerz. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2005; 13:916–924

[12] Dahan A, Yassen A, Romberg R et al. Buprenorphine induces ceiling in respiratory depression but not in analgesia. Br J Anaesth 2006; 96: 627–32.

[13] Fachinformation PALEXIA® retard [Tapentadol] Kapitel 9, Abschnitt 4.2, 5.2, Stand: August 2010

[14] Fredheim OM, Moksnes K, Borchgrevink PC et al. Clinical pharmacology of methadone for pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52: 879–89.

[15] Mahajan G, Fishman SM. Major opioids in pain management. In: Benzon HT, Raja SN, Molloy RE, et al, eds. Essentials of Pain and Regional Anesthesia. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005:94-105.

[16] Garrido MJ, Troconiz IF. Methadone: a review of its pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic properties. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 1999;42:61-66.

[17] Davis MP, Walsh D. Methadone for relief of cancer pain: a review of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, and protocols of administration. Support Care Cancer. 2001;9:73-83.

[18] Fishman SM, Wilsey B, Mahajan G, et al. Methadone reincarnated: novel clinical applications with related concerns. Pain Med. 2002;3:339-348.

[19] Rostami-Hodjegan A, Wolff K, Hay AW, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of methadone in opioid users: characterization of time-dependent changes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;48:43-52.

[20] Justo D, Gal‐Oz A, Paran Y et al. Methadone‐associated Torsades de Pointes (polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) in opioid‐dependent patients. Addiction 2006;101: 1333–8.

[21] Ballesteros MF, Budnitz DS, Sanford CP, et al. Increase in deaths because of methadone in North Carolina [letter]. JAMA. 2003;290:40.

[22] Compton P, Charuvastra VC, Kintaudi K et al. Pain responses in methadone‐maintained opioid abusers. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000; 20: 237–45.

[23] Athanasos P, Smith CS, White JM et al. Methadone maintenance patients are cross‐tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of very high plasma morphine concentrations. Pain 2006;120: 267–75.

[24] Cruciani RA. Methadone: to ECG or not to ECG…That is still the question. J Pain Symptom Manage 2008;36: 545–52.

[25] Gil M, Sala M, Anguera I, et al. QT prolongation and torsades de pointes in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and treated with methadone. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92:995-997

[26] Krantz MJ, Lewkowiez L, Hayes H, et al. Torsades de pointes associated with very high dose methadone. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:501-504.

[27] Walker PW, Klein D, Kasza L. High-dose methadone and ventricular arrhythmias: a report of three cases. Pain. 2003;103:321-324.

[28] Peng PW, Sandler AN. A review of the use of fentanyl analgesia in the management of acute pain in adults. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 576–599

[29] Lötsch J Geisslinger G, Tegeder I. Opioide bei Leber- oder Nierenfunktionsstörung. In: Zenz M, Jurna I (Hrsg). Lehrbuch der Schmerztherapie, 2. Auflage, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Stuttgart 2001:329–334

[30] Likar R, Sittl R. Praxis der transdermalen Schmerztherapie. UNI-MED Bremen. 2002

[31] Janicki PK, Parris WC. Clinical pharmacology of opioids. In: Smith HS, ed. Drugs for Pain. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus; 2003:97-118.

[32] Lichtor JL, Sevarino FB, Joshi GP, et al. The relative potency of oral transmucosal fentanyl of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Anesth Analg. 1999;89:732-738.

[33] Gourlay GK. Treatment of cancer pain with transdermal fentanyl. Lancet Oncol. 2001;2:165-172.

[34] Sandler A. Transdermal fentanyl: acute analgesic clinical studies. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1992;7:S27-S35.

[35] Gourlay GK. Treatment of cancer pain with transdermal fentanyl. Lancet Oncol. 2001;2:165-172.

[36] Latta KS, Ginsberg B & Barkin RL. Meperidine: a critical review. Am J Ther 2002;9(1): 53–68.

[37] Jasani NB, O’Conner RE & Bouzoukis JK. Comparison of hydromorphone and meperidine for ureteral colic. Acad Emerg Med 1994;1: 539–43.

 

Andere schmerzstillende Substanzgruppen – Triptane (EXPERT 22)

[1] Tfelt-Hansen P, Ryan RE. Oral therapy for migraine: comparisons between rizatriptan and sumatriptan. A review of four randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Neurology 2000; 55 (Suppl. 2): S19–S24

[2] Goldstein J, Ryan R, Jiang K et al. Crossover comparison of rizatriptan 5 mg and 10 mg vs sumatriptan 25 mg and 50 mg in migraine. Headache 1998; 38: 737–747

[3] Goldstein J, Tiseo PT, Albert KS ert al. Eletriptan in migraine patients reporting unsatisfactory response to rizatriptan. Headache 2006; 46: 1142–1150

[4] Tfelt-Hansen PC. Published and not fully published double-blind, randomised, controlled trials with oral naratriptan in the treatment of migraine: a review based on the GSK Trial Register. J Headache Pain 2011; 12: 399–403

[5] Lewis DW, Winner P, Hershey AD et al. Efficacy of zolmitriptan nasal spray in adolescent migraine. Pediatrics 2007; 120: 390–396

 

Koanalgetika Teil A (EXPERT 22)

[1] Moore RA, Derry S, Aldington D, Cole P, Wiffen PJ. Amitriptyline for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12:CD008242.

[2] Kaur H, Hota D, Bhansali A et al. A comparative evaluation of amitriptyline and duloxetine in painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 818–822

[3] Attal N, Cruccu G, Baron R et al. EFNS guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain: 2010 revision. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17: 1113-e88

[4] Saarto T, Wiffen PJ. Antidepressants for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4: CD005454

[5] Jensen T.: Anticonvulsants in neuropathic pain: rationale and clinical evidence. Eur J Pain 2002; 6S: 61-68

[6] Dworkin RH, O’Connor AB, Audette J et al. Recommendations for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain: an overview and literature update. Mayo Clin Proc 2010; 85: S3–S14

[7] Moore RA, Wiffen PJ, Derry S et al. Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 3: CD007938

[8] Finnerup NB, Sindrup SH, Jensen TS. The evidence for pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain. Pain 2010; 150: 573–581

[9] Nikolajsen L, Finnerup NB, Kramp S, Vimtrup AS, Keller J, Jensen TS. A randomized study of the effects of gabapentin on postamputation pain. Anesthesiology. 2006 Nov;105(5):1008-15.

[10] Serpell MG. Gabapentin in neuropathic pain syndromes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 2002; 99: 557–566

[11] Siddall PJ, Cousins MJ, Otte A et al. Pregabalin in central neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury: a placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2006; 67: 1792–1800

[12] Freynhagen R, Strojek K, Griesing T et al. Efficacy of pregabalin in neuropathic pain evaluated in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of flexible- and fixed-dose regimens. Pain 2005; 115: 254–263

[13] Sabatowski R, Galvez R, Cherry DA et al. Pregabalin reduces pain and improves sleep and mood disturbances in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pain 2004; 109: 26–35

[14] Gahr M, Freudenmann RW, Hiemke C et al (2013) Pregabalin abuse and dependence in Germany: results from a database query. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 69:1335–1342

[15] Sobotka JL, Alexander B, Cook BL. A review of carbamazepine’s hematologic reactions and monitoring recommendations. DICP 1990; 24:1214.

[16] McCormack M, Alfirevic A, Bourgeois S, et al. HLA-A*3101 and carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Europeans. N Engl J Med 2011; 364:1134.

[17] Man CB, Kwan P, Baum L, et al. Association between HLA-B*1502 allele and antiepileptic drug-induced cutaneous reactions in Han Chinese. Epilepsia 2007; 48:1015.

[18] Zhou M, Chen N, He L, Yang M, Zhu C, Wu F. Oxcarbazepine for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;3:CD007963.

[19] May TW, Korn-Merker E, Rambeck B. Clinical pharmacokinetics of oxcarbazepine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2003;42(12):1023-1042

 

Koanalgetika Teil B (EXPERT 22)

[1] Yennurajalingam S, Frisbee-Hume S, Palmer JL, et al. Reduction of cancer-related fatigue with dexamethasone: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol 2013; 31:3076.

[2] Haywood A, Good P, Khan S, et al. Corticosteroids for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; CD010756.

[3] George R, Jeba J, Ramkumar G, et al. Interventions for the treatment of metastatic extradural spinal cord compression in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; CD006716.

[4] Martinez-Zapata MJ, Roque I, Figuls M, Alonso-Coello P. Calcitonin for metastatic bone pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012.

[5] Knopp-Sihota JA, Newburn-Cook CV, Homik J, et al. Calcitonin for treating acute and chronic pain of recent and remote osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 2012; 23:17.

[6] European Medicines Agency recommends limiting long-term use of calcitonin medicines http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/public_health_alerts/2012/07/human_pha_detail_000065.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d126 (Accessed on October 17, 2012).

[7] Crandall CJ, Newberry SJ, Diamant A, et al. Comparative effectiveness of pharmacologic treatments to prevent fractures: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2014; 161:711.

[8] McClung M, Harris ST, Miller PD, et al. Bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis: benefits, risks, and drug holiday. Am J Med 2013; 126:13.

[9] Sawynok J, Sweeney MI. The role of purines in nociception. Neuroscience 1989;32: 557–569

[10] Epstein JB, Marcoe JH. Topical application of capsaicin for treatment of oral neuropathic pain and trigeminal neuralgia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994; 77: 135–140

[11] Chrubasik S, Weiser T, Beime B. Effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin cream in the treatment of chronic soft tissue pain. Phytother Res 2010; 24: 1877–1885

[12] Salas S, Frasca M, Planchet-Barraud B, et al. Ketamine analgesic effect by continuous intravenous infusion in refractory cancer pain: considerations about the clinical research in palliative care. J Palliat Med 2012; 15:287.

[13] Prommer EE. Ketamine for pain: an update of uses in palliative care. J Palliat Med 2012; 15:474.

[14] Jackson K, Ashby M, Howell D, et al. The effectiveness and adverse effects profile of “burst” ketamine in refractory cancer pain: The VCOG PM 1-00 study. J Palliat Care 2010; 26:176.

[15] Ben-Ari A, Lewis MC, Davidson E. Chronic administration of ketamine for analgesia. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2007; 21:7.

[16] Rolke R, Birklein F. Neuropathische Komponente bei Tumorschmerzen: Ein Leitfaden für Diagnostik und Therapie. Angew Schmerzther Palliativmed 2010; 2:1–10

[17] Kannan TR, Saxena A, Bhatnagar S, Barry A. Oral ketamine as an adjuvant to oral morphine for neuropathic pain in cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 2002; 23:60–65

[18] Maida V. The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patietns. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;103:121–2.

[19] Kogan NM. Cannabinoids and cancer. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2005;5:941–52.

 

Die pharmakologische Therapie chronischer Schmerzen (EXPERT 23)

[1] Mercadante S, Portenoy RK. Opioid poorly-responsive cancer pain. Part 3. Clinical strategies to improve opioid responsiveness. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 21:338.

[2] Portenoy RK. Adjuvant analgesics in pain management. In: Textbook of Palliative Medicine, 4th, Hanks G, Cherny NI, Christakis N, Fallon M, Kaasa S, Portenoy RK (Eds), Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010. p.361.

[3] Prommer EE. Tramadol: does it have a role in cancer pain management? J Opioid Manag 2005; 1:131.

[4] Maltoni M, Scarpi E, Modonesi C, Passardi A, Calpona S, Turriziani A, et al. A validation study of the WHO analgesic ladder: a two-step vs three-step strategy. Support Care Cancer 2005; 13: 888-94.

[5] Wilder-Smith CH, Schimke J, Osterwalder B, Senn HJ. Oral tramadol, a mu-opioid agonist and monoamine reuptake-blocker, and morphine for strong cancer-related pain. Ann Oncol 1994; 5: 141-6.

[6] Mercadante S, Salvaggio L, Dardanoni G, Agnello A, Garofalo S. Dextropropoxyphene versus morphine in opioid-naive cancer patients with pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998; 15: 76-81.

[7] Rodriguez RF, Bravo LE, Castro F, Montoya O, Castillo JM, Castillo MP, et al. Incidence of weak opioids adverse events in the management of cancer pain: a double-blind comparative trial. J Palliat Med 2007; 10: 56-60.

[8] Baek SK, Shin HW, Choi YJ, et al. Noninterventional observational study using high-dose controlled-release oxycodone (CR oxycodone) for cancer pain management in outpatient clinics. Pain Med 2013; 14:1866.

[9] Mercadante S, Tirelli W, David F, et al. Morphine versus oxycodone in pancreatic cancer pain: a randomized controlled study. Clin J Pain 2010; 26:794.

[10] Caraceni A, Pigni A, Brunelli C. Is oral morphine still the first choice opioid for moderate to severe cancer pain? A systematic review within the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative guidelines project. Palliat Med 2011; 25:402–409

[11] Schmidt-Hansen M, Bromham N, Taubert M, Arnold S, Hilgart JS. Buprenorphine for treating cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 31;3:CD009596.

 

Neuropathische Schmerzen (EXPERT 23)

[1] Nnoaham KE, Kumbang J (2008) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD003222

[2] Ezzo J, Berman B, Hadhazy VA et al (2000) Is acupuncture effective for the treatment of chronic pain? A systematic review. Pain 86:217–225

[3] Baron R, Binder A, Birklein F et al (2012) Pharmakologische nicht-interventionelle Therapie chronisch neuropathischer Schmerzen. In: Diener HC, Weimar C (Hrsg) Leitlinien für Diagnostik und Therapie in der Neurologie, 5. Aufl. Thieme, Stuttgart

[4] Attal N, Cruccu G, Baron R et al (2010) EFNS guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain: 2010 revision. Eur J Neurol 17:1113–e88

[5] Argoff CE. The coexistence of neuropathic pain, sleep, and psychiatric disorders: a novel treatment approach. Clin J Pain. 2007;23:15-22.

[6] Gilron I. Gabapentin and pregabalin for chronic neuropathic and early postsurgical pain: current evidence and future directions. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2007; 20: 456–472

[7] Harke H, Gretenkort P, Ladleif HU, Rahman S, Harke O. The response of neuropathic pain and pain in complex regional pain syndrome I to carbamazepine and sustained-release morphine in patients pretreated with spinal cord stimulation: a double-blinded randomized study. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:488-95.

[8] Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Moore RA, Kalso EA. Carbamazepine for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Apr 10;4:CD005451.

[9] Eisenberg E. et al. Efficacy and safety of opioid agonists in the treatment of neuropathic pain of nonmalignant origin: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2005; 293: 3043–3052

[10] Eisenberg E, McNicol E, Carr DB. Opioids for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 3:CD006146

[11] Baron R, Binder A, Birklein F et al: Pharmakologische nicht-interventionelle Therapie chronisch neuropathischer Schmerzen. In: Diener HC, Weimar C (Hrsg) Leitlinien für Diagnostik und Therapie in der Neurologie, 5. Aufl. Thieme, Stuttgart 2012

[12] Cartoni C, Brunetti GA, Federico V, Efficace F, Grammatico S, Tendas A, Scaramucci L, Cupelli L, D’Elia GM, Truini A, Niscola P, Petrucci MT. Controlled-release oxycodone for the treatment of bortezomib-induced neuropathic pain in patients with multiple myeloma. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:2621-6.

[13] Lazzari M, Sabato AF, Caldarulo C, Casali M, Gafforio P, Marcassa C, Leonardis F. Effectiveness and tolerability of low-dose oral oxycodone/naloxone added to anticonvulsant therapy for noncancer neuropathic pain: an observational analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2014;30:555-64.

[14] Raleigh MF, Dunn AM. Controlled-release oxycodone for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91:286-7.

[15] Leppert W, Kowalski G. Methadone as an additional opioid for a cancer patient with severe neuropathic and bone pain not responsive to other opioids and adjuvant analgesics. J Palliat Care. 2013;29:119-21.

[16] McNicol ED, Midbari A, Eisenberg E. Opioids for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;8:CD006146.

[17] Khaliq W, Alam S, Puri N. Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007:CD004846

[18] Kennedy WR, Vanhove GF, Lu SP et al. A randomized, controlled, open-label study of the long-term effects of NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, on epidermal nerve fiber density and sensory function in healthy volunteers. J Pain 2010; 11: 579–587

[19] Finnerup NB, Sindrup SH, Jensen TS. The evidence for pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain. Pain 2010;150: 573–581

[20] Attal N, Cruccu G, Baron R et al. EFNS guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain: 2010 revision. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17: 1113-e88

[21] Wood MJ, Kay R, Dworkin RH, et al. Oral acyclovir therapy accelerates pain resolution in patients with herpes zoster: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:341-347.

[22] Tyring S, Barbarash RA, Nahlik JE, et al. Famciclovir for the treatment of acute herpes zoster: effects on acute disease and postherpetic neuralgia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Collaborative Famciclovir Herpes Zoster Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:89-96.

[23] Whitley RJ, Weiss H, Gnann JW Jr, et al. Acyclovir with and without prednisone for the treatment of herpes zoster: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:376-383.

[24] Chen N, Yang M, He L, et al. Corticosteroids for preventing postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;12:CD005582.

[25] van Wijck AJ, Opstelten W, Moons KG, et al. The PINE study of epidural steroids and local anaesthetics to prevent postherpetic neuralgia: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;367:219-224.

[26] Backonja M, Glanzman RL. Gabapentin dosing for neuropathic pain: evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clin Ther. 2003;25:81-104.

[27] Watson CP, Vernich L, Chipman M, et al. Nortriptyline versus amitriptyline in postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized trial. Neurology. 1998;51:1166-1171.

[28] Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, et al. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1324-1334.

[29] Boureau F, Legallicier P, Kabir-Ahmadi M. Tramadol in post-herpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain. 2003;104:323-331.

[30] Davies PS, Galer BS. Review of lidocaine patch 5% studies in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Drugs. 2004;64:937-947.

[31] Galer BS, Rowbotham MC, Perander J, et al. Topical lidocaine patch relieves postherpetic neuralgia more effectively than a vehicle topical patch: results of an enriched enrollment study. Pain. 1999;80:533-538.

[32] Gammaitoni AR, Alvarez NA, Galer BS. Safety and tolerability of the lidocaine patch 5%, a targeted peripheral analgesic: a review of the literature. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;43:111-117.

[33] Backonja MM, Malan TP, Vanhove GF, et al. NGX-4010, a highconcentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study with an open-label extension. Pain Med. 2010;11:600-608.

[34] Treede RD, Jensen TS, Campbell JN, et al. Neuropathic pain: redefinition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes. Neurology. 2008;70:1630–1635.

[35] The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:977-986.

[36] Khan C, Abholz HH, Ellger B et al (2012) Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Neuropathie bei Diabetes im Erwachsenenalter, Kurzfassung, Version 1.0, April 2012, AWMF-Register: Nr.: nvl-001e. Diabetol Stoffwechsel 7:243–285

[37] Bril V, England JD, Franklin GM, et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy—report of the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, the American Academy of Neurology, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Muscle Nerve. 2011;43:910-917.

[38] Gorson KC, Schott C, Herman R, et al. Gabapentin in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;66:251-252.

[39] Backonja M, Beydoun A, Edwards KR, et al. Gabapentin for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998;280:1831-1836.

[40] Kaur H, Hota D, Bhansali A, et al. A comparative evaluation of amitriptyline and duloxetine in painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:818-822.

[41] Raskin J, Pritchett YL, Wang F, et al. A double-blind, randomized multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain Med. 2005;6:346-356.

[42] Goldstein DJ, Lu Y, Detke MJ, et al. Duloxetine vs. placebo in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Pain. 2005;116:109-118.

[43] Saarto T, Wiffen PJ. Antidepressants for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;4:CD005454.

[44] Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, et al. Nortriptyline and gabapentin, alone and in combination for neuropathic pain: a double-blind, randomized controlled crossover trial. Lancet. 2009;374:1252-1261.

[45] Rowbotham MC, Goli V, Kunz NR, et al. Venlafaxine extended release in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a doubleblind, placebo-controlled study. Pain. 2004;110:697-706.

[46] Ko SH, Kwon HS, Yu JM, et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of tramadol/acetaminophen combination therapy and gabapentin in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabet Med. 2010;27:1033-1040.

[47] Sindrup SH, Andersen G, Madsen C, et al. Tramadol relieves pain and allodynia in polyneuropathy: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Pain. 1999;83:85-90.

[48] Hanna M, O’Brien C, Wilson MC. Prolonged-release oxycodone enhances the effects of existing gabapentin therapy in painful diabetic neuropathy patients. Eur J Pain. 2008;12:804-813.

[49] Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, et al. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1324-1334.

[50] Nelson KA, Park KM, Robinovitz E, et al. High-dose oral dextromethorphan versus placebo in painful diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia. Neurology. 1997;48:1212-1218.

[51] Sang CN, Booher S, Gilron I, et al. Dextromethorphan and memantine in painful diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia: efficacy and dose-response trials. Anesthesiology. 2002;96:1053-1061.

[52] Derry S, Lloyd R, Moore RA, et al. Topical capsaicin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;4:CD007393.

[53] Wolff RF, Bala MM, Westwood M, et al. 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN): a systematic review. Swiss Med Wkly. 2010;140:297-306.

[54] Boulton AJ, Malik RA, Arezzo JC, et al. Diabetic somatic neuropathies. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1458-1486.

[55] van de Vusse AC, Stomp-van den Berg SG, Kessels AH, et al. Randomised controlled trial of gabapentin in complex regional pain syndrome type 1. BMC Neurol. 2004;4:13.

[56] Watson CP, Moulin D, Watt-Watson J, et al. Controlled-release oxycodone relieves neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial in painful diabetic neuropathy. Pain. 2003;105:71-78.

[57] Sigtermans MJ, van Hilten JJ, Bauer MC, et al. Ketamine produces effective and long-term pain relief in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Pain. 2009;145:304-311.

[58] Kiefer RT, Rohr P, Ploppa A, et al. Efficacy of ketamine in anesthetic dosage for the treatment of refractory complex regional pain syndrome: an open-label phase II study. Pain Med. 2008;9:1173-1201.

[59] Manicourt DH, Brasseur JP, Boutsen Y, et al. Role of alendronate in therapy for posttraumatic complex regional pain syndrome type I of the lower extremity. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:3690-3697.

[60] Kieburtz K, Simpson D, Yiannoutsos C, et al. A randomized trial of amitriptyline and mexiletine for painful neuropathy in HIV infection. AIDS Clinical Trial Group 242 Protocol Team. Neurology. 1998;51:1682-1688.

[61] Hahn K, Arendt G, Braun JS, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of gabapentin for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies. J Neurol. 2004;251:1260-1266.

[62] Simpson DM, Schifitto G, Clifford DB, et al. Pregabalin for painful HIV neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 2010;74:413-420.

[63] Simpson DM, McArthur JC, Olney R, et al. Lamotrigine for HIVassociated painful sensory neuropathies: a placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 2003;60:1508-1514.

[64] Simpson DM, Brown S, Tobias J. Controlled trial of high-concentration capsaicin patch for treatment of painful HIV neuropathy. Neurology. 2008;70:2305-2313.

[65] Estanislao L, Carter K, McArthur J, et al. A randomized controlled trial of 5% lidocaine gel for HIV-associated distal symmetric polyneuropathy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37:1584-1586.

[66] Simpson DM, Dorfman D, Olney RK, et al. Peptide T in the treatment of painful distal neuropathy associated with AIDS: results of a placebo-controlled trial. The Peptide T Neuropathy Study Group. Neurology. 1996;47:1254-1259.

[67] McArthur JC, Yiannoutsos C, Simpson DM, et al. A phase II trial of nerve growth factor for sensory neuropathy associated with HIV infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Team 291. Neurology. 2000;54:1080-1088.

[68] Youle M, Osio M. A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre study of acetyl L-carnitine in the symptomatic treatment of antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in patients with HIV-1 infection. HIV Med. 2007;8:241-250.

[69] Keswani SC, Leitz GJ, Hoke A. Erythropoietin is neuroprotective in models of HIV sensory neuropathy. Neurosci Lett. 2004;371:102-105.

 

Tumorschmerzen (EXPERT 23)

[1] World Health Organization. Cancer pain relief, 2nd, World Health Organization, Geneva 1996.

[2] Mercadante S, Portenoy RK. Opioid poorly-responsive cancer pain. Part 3. Clinical strategies to improve opioid responsiveness. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 21:338.

[3] Duarte Souza JF, Lajolo PP, Pinczowski H, del Giglio A. Adjunct dipyrone in association with oral morphine for cancer-related pain: the sooner the better. Support Care Cancer. 2007;15:1319-23.

[4] Coates TD, Boxer LA, Tirnauer JS. Drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis. UpToDate 22.2 – C22.60:Version 20.20, 2014

[5] Andres E, Maloisel F. Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis or acute neutropenia. Curr Opin Hematol 2008;15:15–21

[6] Portenoy RK. Adjuvant analgesics in pain management. In: Textbook of Palliative Medicine, 4th, Hanks G, Cherny NI, Christakis N, Fallon M, Kaasa S, Portenoy RK (Eds), Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010. p.361.

[7] Straube C, Derry S, Jackson KC, et al. Codeine, alone and with paracetamol (acetaminophen), for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 9:CD006601.

[8] Rodriguez RF, Castillo JM, Castillo MP, et al. Hydrocodone/acetaminophen and tramadol chlorhydrate combination tablets for the management of chronic cancer pain: a double-blind comparative trial. Clin J Pain 2008; 24:1.

[9] Nong L, Sun Y, Tian Y, Li H, Li H. Effects of parecoxib on morphine analgesia after gynecology tumor operation: a randomized trial of parecoxib used in postsurgical pain management. J Surg Res. 2013;183:821-6.

[10] Deutsche Arzneimittelkommission. Dtsch Ärztebl 2004; 1001:A3365

[11] Prommer EE. Tramadol: does it have a role in cancer pain management? J Opioid Manag 2005; 1:131.

[12] Maltoni M, Scarpi E, Modonesi C, Passardi A, Calpona S, Turriziani A, et al. A validation study of the WHO analgesic ladder: a two-step vs three-step strategy. Support Care Cancer 2005; 13: 888-94.

[13] Wilder-Smith CH, Schimke J, Osterwalder B, Senn HJ. Oral tramadol, a mu-opioid agonist and monoamine reuptake-blocker, and morphine for strong cancer-related pain. Ann Oncol 1994; 5: 141-6.

[14] Mercadante S, Salvaggio L, Dardanoni G, Agnello A, Garofalo S. Dextropropoxyphene versus morphine in opioid-naive cancer patients with pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998; 15: 76-81.

[15] Rodriguez RF, Bravo LE, Castro F, Montoya O, Castillo JM, Castillo MP, et al. Incidence of weak opioids adverse events in the management of cancer pain: a double-blind comparative trial. J Palliat Med 2007; 10: 56-60.

[16] Baek SK, Shin HW, Choi YJ, et al. Noninterventional observational study using high-dose controlled-release oxycodone (CR oxycodone) for cancer pain management in outpatient clinics. Pain Med 2013; 14:1866.

[17] Mercadante S, Tirelli W, David F, et al. Morphine versus oxycodone in pancreatic cancer pain: a randomized controlled study. Clin J Pain 2010; 26:794.

[18] Caraceni A, Pigni A, Brunelli C. Is oral morphine still the first choice opioid for moderate to severe cancer pain? A systematic review within the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative guidelines project. Palliat Med 2011; 25:402–409

[19] Schmidt-Hansen M, Bromham N, Taubert M, Arnold S, Hilgart JS. Buprenorphine for treating cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 31;3:CD009596.

[20] Levy MH. Pharmacologic treatment of cancer pain. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:1124–1132

[21] Alt-Epping B, Bauer J, Schuler U et al. Schmerztherapie in der Onkologie. Ergebnisse einer bundesweiten Umfrage. Schmerz 2014; 28:157–165

[22] Caraceni A, Hanks G, Kaasa S et al. Use of opioids analgesics in treatment of cancer pain: evidence-based recommendations from the EAPC. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:e58–e68

[23] Pergolizzi J, Böger RH, Budd K et al. Opioids and the management of chronic severe pain in the eldery: consensus statement of an International Expert Panel with focus on the six clinically most often used World Health Organization Step III opioids (buprenorphin, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodon). Pain Pract 2008;8:287–313

[24] Hanks GW, Conno F, Cherny N et al. Morphine and alternative opioids in cancer pain: the EAPC recommendations. Br J Cancer 2001;84:587–593

[25] King SJ, Reid C, Forbes K et al. A systematic review of oxycodone in the management of cancer pain. Palliat Med 2011; 25:454–470

[26] Murray A, Hagen NA. Hydromorphone. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005 May;29(5 Suppl):S57-66.

[27] Dean M. Opioids in renal failure and dialysis patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 2004; 28:497–504

[28] Davis MP. Twelve reasons for considering buprenorphine as a frontline analgesic in the management of pain. J Support Oncol. 2012;10:209-19.

[29] Wirz S, Wittmann M, Schenk M, et al. Gastrointestinal symptoms under opioid therapy: a prospective comparison of oral sustained-release hydromorphone, transdermal fentanyl, and transdermal buprenorphine. Eur J Pain 2009; 13:737.

[30] Sittl R, Griessinger N, Likar R. Analgesic efficacy and tolerability of transdermal buprenorphine in patients with inadequately controlled chronic pain related to cancer and other disorders: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther 2003; 25:150.

[31] Leppert W. The role of methadone in cancer pain treatment–a review. Int J Clin Pract 2009; 63:1095.

[32] Bryson J, Tamber A, Seccareccia D, Zimmermann C. Methadone for treatment of cancer pain. Curr Oncol Rep 2006; 8:282.

[33] Nicholson AB. Methadone for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; :CD003971.

[34] Rauck R, North J, Gever LN, et al. Fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) for breakthrough pain in patients with cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Oncol 2010; 21:1308.

[35] Bennett MI, Bagnall AM, José Closs S. How effective are patient-based educational interventions in the management of cancer pain? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain 2009; 143:192–199

[36] Sjøgren P, Thunedborg LP, Christrup L, et al. Is development of hyperalgesia, allodynia and myoclonus related to morphine metabolism during long-term administration? Six case histories. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1998; 42:1070.

[37] Koppert W. Opioid-induzierte Hyperalgesie. Pathophysiologie und Klinik. Anaesthesist 2004; 53:455–466

[38] Salpeter SR, Buckley JS, Bruera E. The use of very-low-dose methadone for palliative pain control and the prevention of opioid hyperalgesia. J Palliat Med 2013; 16:616.

[39] Knotkova H, Fine PG, Portenoy RK. Opioid rotation: the science and the limitations of the equianalgesic dose table. J Pain Symptom Manage 2009; 38:426–439

[40] Fine PG, Portenoy RK. Establishing „best practices“ for opioid rotation: conclusions of an expert panel. J Pain Symptom Manage 2009; 38:418–425

[41] Kornick CA, Santiago-Palma J, Moryl N, Payne R, Obbens EA. Benefit-risk assessment of transdermal fentanyl for the treatment of chronic pain. Drug Saf. 2003;26:951-73.

[42] Breitbart W, Chandler S, Eagel B, Ellison N, Enck RE, Lefkowitz M, Payne R. An alternative algorithm for dosing transdermal fentanyl for cancer-related pain. Oncology (Williston Park). 2000;14:695-705

[43] Bennett MI. Effectiveness of antiepileptic or antidepressant drugs when added to opioids for cancer pain: systematic review. Palliat Med 2011; 25:553.

[44] Saarto T, Wiffen PJ. Antidepressants for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; :CD005454.

[45] Verdu B, Decosterd I, Buclin T, et al. Antidepressants for the treatment of chronic pain. Drugs 2008; 68:2611.

[46] Wernicke JF, Pritchett YL, D’Souza DN, et al. A randomized controlled trial of duloxetine in diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Neurology 2006; 67:1411.

[47] Paulsen Ø, Aass N, Kaasa S, Dale O. Do corticosteroids provide analgesic effects in cancer patients? A systematic literature review. J Pain Symptom Manage 2013; 46:96.

[48] Mercadante SL, Berchovich M, Casuccio A, et al. A prospective randomized study of corticosteroids as adjuvant drugs to opioids in advanced cancer patients. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2007; 24:13.

 

Besonderheiten bei der Therapie von Tumorschmerzen (EXPERT 23)

[1] Nauck F, Eulitz N, Geyer A et al. Durchbruchschmerzen: Epidemiologie, Charakteristik und Therapie unter Berücksichtigung verschiedener Applikationsformen starker Opioide. Z Palliativmed 2008; 9:219–237

[2] Nauck F, Eulitz N. Tumorschmerztherapie. Basistherapie und Behandlung des Durchbruchschmerzes. Schmerz 2007; 21:359–370

[3] Smith H. A comprehensive review of rapid-onset opioids for breakthrough pain.  CNS Drugs. 2012;26:509-35.

[4] Coluzzi PH, Schwartzberg L, Conroy JD, Charapata S, Gay M, Busch MA, Chavez J, Ashley J, Lebo D, McCracken M, Portenoy RK. Breakthrough cancer pain: a randomized trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR). Pain 2001;91:123-30.

[5] Zeppetella G, Davies AN. Opioids for the management of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;10:CD004311.

[6] Hall LM, O’Lenic K. Treatment strategies to overcome end-of-dose failure with  oral and transdermal opioids. J Pharm Pract. 2012;25:503-9.

[7] Caraceni A, Hanks G, Kaasa S et al. Use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain: evidence-based recommendations from the EAPC. J Clin Oncol 2012; 13:e58–e68

[8] Laugsand EA, Kaasa S, Klepstad P. Management of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients: systematic review and evidence-based recommendations. Palliat Med. 2011;25:442-53.

[9] Tassinari D, Sartori S, Tamburini E, Scarpi E, Raffaeli W, Tombesi P, Maltoni  M. Adverse effects of transdermal opiates treating moderate-severe cancer pain in comparison to long-acting morphine: a meta-analysis and systematic review of the  literature. J Palliat Med. 2008;11:492-501.

[10] McNicol E, Horowicz-Mehler N, Fisk RA, Bennett K, Gialeli-Goudas M, Chew PW, Lau J, Carr D; Americal Pain Society. Management of opioid side effects in cancer-related and chronic noncancer pain: a systematic review. J Pain. 2003 Jun;4(5):231-56.

[11] Benyamin R, Trescot AM, Datta S, Buenaventura R, Adlaka R, Sehgal N, Glaser SE, Vallejo R. Opioid complications and side effects. Pain Physician. 2008;11(2 Suppl):S105-20.

[12] Ahmedzai SH, Nauck F, Bar-Sela G, Bosse B, Leyendecker P, Hopp M. A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, double-dummy, parallel-group study to determine the safety and efficacy of oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets in patients with moderate/severe, chronic cancer pain. Palliat Med. 2012;26:50-60.

[13] Leppert W. Role of oxycodone and oxycodone/naloxone in cancer pain management. Pharmacol Rep. 2010;62:578-91.

[14] Rodrigues A, Wong C, Mattiussi A, Alexander S, Lau E, Dupuis LL. Methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation in pediatric oncology patients.  Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:1667-70.

[15] Swegle JM, Logemann C. Management of common opioid-induced adverse effects. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74:1347-54.

[16] Ashby M. The role of radiotherapy in palliative care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1991;6:380-8.

[17] Fairchild A. Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases from lung cancer: Evidence-based medicine? World J Clin Oncol. 2014;5:845-857.

[18] Leung JW, Bowen-Wright M, Aveling W, et al. Coeliac plexus block for pain in pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1983; 70: 730–732.

[19] Myers J, Chan V, Jarvis V et al. Intraspinal techniques for pain management in cancer patients: a systematic review. Support Care Cancer 2010; 18:137–149

[20] Vissers KC, Besse K, Wagemans M et al. Pain in patients with cancer. Pain Pract 2011; 11:453–475

 

Besonderheiten bei der Therapie von Kopf- und Gesichtsschmerzen (EXPERT 24)

[1] Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie. Leitlinie Therapie der Migräne 2013. http://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/030-057l_S1_Migr%C3%A4ne_Therapie_2012_1.pdf

[2] Goldstein J, Silberstein SD, Saper JR et al. Acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine in combination versus ibuprofen for acute migraine: results from a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, single-dose, placebo-controlled study. Headache 2006; 46: 444–453

[3] Goldstein J, Silberstein SD, Saper JR et al. Acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine in combination versus ibuprofen for acute migraine: results from a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, single-dose, placebo-controlled study. Headache 2006a; 46: 444–453

[4] Evers S, Rahmann A, Kraemer C et al. Treatment of childhood migraine attacks with oral zolmitriptan and ibuprofen. Neurology 2006; 67: 497–499

[5] Diener HC, Bussone G, de Liano H et al. Placebo-controlled comparison of effervescent acetylsalicylic acid, sumatriptan and ibuprofen in the treatment of migraine attacks. Cephalalgia 2004b; 24: 947–954

[6] Brandes JL, Kudrow D, Stark SR et al. Sumatriptan-naproxen for acute treatment of migraine: a randomized trial. J Am Med Ass 2007; 297: 1443–1454

[7] Lipton RB, Dodick DW, Adelman JU et al. Consistency of response to sumatriptan/naproxen sodium in a placebo- controlled, crossover study. Cephalalgia 2009b; 29: 826–836

[8] Nestvold K, Kloster R, Partinen MSR. Treatment of acute migraine attack: naproxen and placebo compared. Cephalalgia 1985; 5: 115–119

[9] Sargent JD, Baumel B, Peters K et al. Aborting a migraine attack: naproxen sodium v ergotamine plus caffeine. Headache 1988; 28: 263–266

[10] Suthisisang CC, Poolsup N, Suksomboon N et al. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of naproxen sodium in the acute treatment of migraine. Headache 2010; 50: 808–818

[11] Peroutka S, Lyon J, Swarbrick J et al. Efficacy of diclofenac sodium softgel 100 mg with or without caffeine 100 mg in migraine without aura: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Headache 2004; 44: 136–141

[12] Engindeniz Z, Demircan C, Karli N et al. Intramuscular tramadol vs. diclofenac sodium for the treatment of acute migraine attacks in emergency department: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. J Headache Pain 2005; 6: 143–148

[13] Del Bene E, Poggioni M, Garagiola U et al. Intramuscular treatment of migraine attacks using diclofenac sodium: a crossover clinical trial. J Int Med Res 1987; 15: 44–48

[14] Dahlöf C, Björkman R. Diclofenac-K (50 and 100 mg) and placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. Cephalalgia 1993; 13: 117–123

[15] Ramacciotti AS, Soares BG, Atallah AN. Dipyrone for acute primary headaches. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 2: CD004842

[16] Tulunay FC, Ergun H, Gulmez SE et al. The efficacy and safety of dipyrone (Novalgin) tablets in the treatment of acute migraine attacks: a double-blind, cross-over, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center study. Funct Neurol 2004; 19: 197–202

[17] Bigal ME, Bordini CA, Speciali JG. Intravenous metamizol (dipyrone) in acute migraine treatment and in episodic tension-type headache – a placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia 2001; 21: 90–95

[18] Savi L, Omboni S, Lisotto C et al. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, Italian study of frovatriptan versus rizatriptan for the acute treatment of migraine. J Headache Pain 2011; 12: 219–226

[19] McDavis HL, Hutchison J, Frovatriptan Phase III Investigators. Frovatriptan – a review of overall clinical efficacy. Cephalalgia 1999; 19: 363–364

[20] MacGregor EA, Brandes JL, Silberstein S et al. Safety and tolerability of short-term preventive frovatriptan: a combined analysis. Headache 2009; 49: 1298–1314

[21] Ferrari MD, Roon KI, Lipton RB et al. Oral triptans (serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonists) in acute migraine treatment: a meta-analysis of 53 trials. Lancet 2001; 358: 1668–1675

[22] Diener HC. Efficacy and tolerability of flunarizine and propranolol in the prophylactic treatment of migraine. Cephalalgia 1999a; 19: 374

[23] Diamond S, Freitag FG. A double blind trial of flunarizine in migraine prophylaxis. Headache Quarterly Current Treatment and Research 1993; 4: 169–172

[24] Diener HC. Flunarizine for migraine prophylaxis. In: Diener HC, ed. Drug Treatment of Migraine and Other Headaches. Basel: Karger; 2000: 269–278

[25] Louis P. A double-blind placebo-controlled prophylactic study of flunarizine (Sibelium(R)) in migraine. Headache 1981; 21: 235–239

[26] Freitag F, Collins S, Carlson H et al. A randomized trial of divalproex sodium extended-release tablets in migraine prophylaxis. Neurology 2002; 58: 1652–1659

[27] Klapper J on behalf of the Divalproex Sodium in Migraine Prophylaxis Study Group. Divalproex sodium in migraine prophylaxis: a dose-controlled study. Cephalalgia 1997; 17: 103–108

[28] Mohammadianinejad SE, Abbasi V, Sajedi SA et al. Zonisamide versus topiramate in migraine prophylaxis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Clin Neuropharmacol 2011; 34: 174–177

[29] Reuter U, Del Rio MS, Diener HC et al. Migraines with and without aura and their response to preventive therapy with topiramate. Cephalalgia 2010; 30: 543–551

[30] Varkey E, Cider A, Carlsson J et al. Exercise as migraine prophylaxis: a randomized study using relaxation and topiramate as controls. Cephalalgia 2011; 31: 1428–1438

[31] Winner P, Gendolla A, Stayer C et al. Topiramate for migraine prevention in adolescents: a pooled analysis of efficacy and safety. Headache 2006; 46: 1503–1510

[32] Aurora S, Dodick D, Turkel C et al. OnabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of chronic migraine: Results from the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase of the PREEMPT 1 trial. Cephalalgia 2010; 30: 793–803

[33] Couch JR. Update on chronic daily headache. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2011; 13:41–55

[34] Redillas C, Solomon S. Prophylactic pharmacological treatment of chronic daily headache. Headache 2000; 40:83–102

[35] Bendtsen L, Jensen R. Mirtazapine is effective in the prophylactic treatment of chronic tension-type headache. Neurology 2004; 62:1706–1711

[36] Söderberg EI, Carlsson JY, Stener-Victorin E, Dahlöf C. Subjective well-being in patients with chronic tension-type headache: effect of acupuncture, physical training, and relaxation training. Clin J Pain 2011; 27:448–456

[37] Miller S, Matharu MS. Managing patients with cluster headache in primary care. Practitioner. 2013;257:15-20, 2.

[38] Lake AE 3rd. Behavioral and nonpharmacologic treatments of headache. Med Clin North Am. 2001;85:1055-75.

[39] Gaul C, Diener H-C, Müller OM. Cluster headache: clinical features and therapeutic options. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2011; 108:543–549

[40] Law S, Derry S, Moore RA. Triptans for acute cluster headache. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 17;7:CD008042.

[41] Pareja JA, Álvarez M. The usual treatment of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Headache. 2013;53:1401-14.

[42] Francis GJ, Becker WJ, Pringsheim TM. Acute and preventive pharmacologic treatment of cluster headache. Neurology. 2010;75:463–473

[43] May A, Leone M, Afra J, et al.; EFNS Task Force. EFNS guidelines on the treatment of cluster headache and other trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:1066–1077.

[44] Tyagi A, Matharu M. Evidence base for the medical treatments used in cluster headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009;13:168–178

[45] Antonaci F, Pareja JA, Caminero AB, Sjaastad O: Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua: parenteral indomethacin: the “indotest”. Headache 1991, 31:122–128.

[46] Sjaastad O, Vincent M. Indomethacin responsive headache syndromes: chronic paroxysmal hemicrania and Hemicrania continua. How they were discovered and what we have learned since. Funct Neurol 2010; 25(1):49–55

[47] Leone M, Franzini A, D’Amico D et al. Strategies for the treatment of autonomic trigeminal cephalalgias. Neurol Sci 2004; [Suppl 3] 25:S167–170

[48] Tfelt-Hansen P, Tfelt-Hansen J. Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action. Headache 2009; 49:117–125

[49] Spears RC. Is gabapentin an effective treatment choice for hemicrania continua? J Headache Pain 2009; 10:271–275

[50] May A, Leone M, Afra J, Linde M, Sandor PS, Evers S, Goadsby PJ. EFNS guidelines on the treatment of cluster headache and other trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13:1066–1077

[51] Tobin J, Flitman S. Occipital nerve blocks: when and what to inject? Headache 2009; 49:1521–1533

[52] Rosselli JL, Karpinski JP. The role of lamotrigine in the treatment of short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing syndrome. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45:108-13.

[53] Matharu MS, Boes CJ, Goadsby PJ. SUNCT syndrome: prolonged attacks, refractoriness and response to topiramate. Neurology. 2002; 58:1307.

[54] Hannerz J, Greitz D, Hansson P, Ericson K. SUNCT may be another manifestation of orbital venous vasculitis. Headache. 1992 Sep;32(8):384-9.

[55] Sommer C. Pharmakologische Behandlung orofazialer Schmerzen. Der Schmerz 2002/5: 381-388

[56] Block F. Gabapentin zur Schmerztherapie. Der Nervenarzt 2001; 2: 69-77

[57] Gaul C, Hastreiter P, Dunker A, et al. Verbesserung der Diagnostik und Therapie der Glossopharyngeusneuralgie. Der Schmerz 2008;S1: 41-46

 

Therapie von Nacken- und Kreuzschmerzen (EXPERT 24)

 

Therapie von muskuloskeletalen Schmerzen (EXPERT 24)

 

Schmerztherapie in bestimmten Lebensabschnitten (EXPERT 24)

[1] Jensen MS, Rebordosa C, Thulstrup AM, et al.: Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism. Epidemiology 2010; 21: 779–85.

[2] Kristensen DM, Hass U, Lesné L, et al.: Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat. Hum Reprod 2011; 26: 235–44.

[3] Notorianni LJ, Oldham HG. Passage of paracetamol into human milk. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1987;24:63-67.

[4] Draper ES, Rankin J, Tonks AM, et al: Recreational drug use: a major risk factor for gastroschisis? Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167: 485–91.

[5] Martinez-Frias ML, Rodriguez-Pinilla E, Prieto L: Prenatal exposure to salicylates and gastroschisis: a case-control study. Teratology 1997; 56: 241–3.

[6] Werler MM, Sheehan JE, Mitchell AA: Maternal medication use and risks of gastroschisis and small intestinal atresia. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 155: 26–31.

[7] Miller EA, Rasmussen SA, Siega-Riz AM, et al. for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study: Risk factors for non-syndromic holoprosencephaly in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2010; 154C: 62–72.

[8] Prakalapakorn SG, Rasmussen SA, Lambert SR, et al. for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study: Assessment of risk factors for infantile cataracts using a case-control study: National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 2000–2004. Ophthalmology 2010; 117: 1500–5.

[9] Jensen MS, Rebordosa C, Thulstrup AM, et al.: Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism. Epidemiology 2010; 21: 779–85.

[10] Kristensen DM, Hass U, Lesné L, et al.: Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat. Hum Reprod 2011; 26: 235–44.

[11] Abe K, Honein MA, Moore CA: Maternal febrile illness, medication use, and risk of congenital renal anomalies. Birth Defects Res A 2003; 67: 911–8.

[12] Stuart JJ, Gross SJ, Elrad H, et al. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid ingestion on maternal and neonatal hemostasis. N Engl J Med. 1982;307:909-912.

[13] Bar-Oz B, Clementi M, Di Giantonio E, Greenberg R, Beer M, Merlob P, Arnon J,  Ornoy A, Zimmerman DM, Berkovitch M. Metamizol (dipyrone, optalgin) in pregnancy, is it safe? A prospective comparative study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005 Apr 1;119:176-9. P

[14] Weintraub A, Mankuta D: Dipyrone-induced oligohydramnios and ductus arteriosus restriction. Isr Med Assoc J 2006; 8: 722–3.

[15] Catalan JL, Santonja J, Martinze L, et al: [Oligoamnios associated with the use of magnesium dipyrone.] Med Clin (Barc) 1995; 104: 541–3.

[16] Alexander FE, Patheal SL, Biondi A, et al: Transplacental chemical exposure and risk of infant leukemia with MLL gene fusion. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 2542–6.

[17] Pombo-de-Oliveira MS, Koifman S: Infant acute leukemia and maternal exposures during pregnancy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 2336–41.

[18] Sharpe CR, Franco EL: Use of dipyrone during pregnancy and risk of Wilms’ tumor. Brazilian Wilms’ Tumor Study Group. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 533–5.

[19] Moise KJ Jr: Effect of advancing gestational age on the frequency of fetal ductal constriction in association with maternal indomethacin use. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168: 1350–53.

[20] Moise KJ, Huhta JC, Sharif DS, et al.: Indomethacin in the treatment of premature labor, effects on the fetal ductus arteriosus. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 327–31.

[21] Siu KL, Lee WH: Maternal diclofenac sodium ingestion and severe neonatal pulmonary hypertension. J Paediatr Child Health 2004; 40: 152–3

[22] Mersal A, Attili I, Alkhotani A: Severe neonatal pulmonary hypertension secondary to antenatal maternal diclofenac ingestion reversed by inhaled nitricoxide and oral sildenafil. Ann Saudi Med 2007; 27: 448–9.

[23] Ishida H, Inamura N, Kawazu Y, et al.: Clinical features of the complete closure of the ductus arteriosus prenatally. Congenit Heart Dis 2011; 6: 51–6.

[24] Bandstra ES, Morrow CE, Mansoor E, et al.: Prenatal drug exposure: infant and toddler outcomes. J Addict Dis 2010; 29: 245–58.

[25] Goel N, Beasley D, Rajkumar V, et al.: Perinatal outcome of illicit substance use in pregnancy-comparative and contemporary socio-clinical profile in the UK. Eur J Pediatr 2011; 170: 199–205.

[26] Diav-Citrin O, Shechtman S, Arnon J, et al.: Is carbamazepine teratogenic? A prospective controlled study of 210 pregnancies. Neurology 2001; 57: 321–4.

[27] Jones KL, Lacro RV, Johnson KA, et al.: Pattern of malformations in the children of women treated with carbamazepine during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 1661–6.

[28] Jentink J, Dolk H, Loane MA, et al.; EUROCAT Antiepileptic Study Working Group: Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations: systematic review and case-control study. BMJ 2010 [b]; 341: c6581.

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