• Es befinden sich keine Produkte im Warenkorb.

  • LOGIN

Literatur und weiterführende Links (FOOD 24-27)

Literaturliste

Antonio Pezzutto, Timo Ulrichs, Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester: Taschenatlas der Immunologie. Georg Thieme Verlag, 2006

Arslanoglu S: Early dietary intervention with a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of allergic manifestations and infections during the first two years of life. J Nutr 2008; 138(6): 1091-5.

Arslanoglu S: Early supplementation of prebiotic oligosaccharides protects formula-fed infants against infections during the first 6 months of life. J Nutr 2007; 137(11): 2420-4.

Banchereau J, Steinman RM: Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 1998, 392: 245-252.

Bang HO, Dyerberg J, Hjorne N. Composition of food consumed by Greenland Eskimos. Acta Med Scand. 1976; 200: 69–73.

Barbul A. Arginine and immune function. Nutrition. 1990; 6: 53–58.

Beutler E. Nutritional and metabolic aspects of glutathione. Ann Rev Nutr. 1989; 9: 287–302.

Billiar TR, Bankey PE, Svingen BA, Curran RD, West MA, Holmann RT, Simmons RL, Cerra FB. Fatty acid intake and Kupffer cell function: Fish oil alters eicosanoid and monokine production to endotoxin stimulation. Surgery 1988;104:343-348.

Borchers AT, Selmi C, Meyers FJ, Keen CL, Gershwin ME: Probiotics and immunity. J Gastroenterol 2009; 44: 26-46.

Bower RH. A modified enteral formula reduces hospital length of stay in patients in intensive care unit. Clin. Nutr. 1992;11:3019-3026.

Braga M, Gianotti L, Vignali A, Cestari A, Bisagni P, Di Carlo V. Artificial nutrition after major abdominal surgery: impact of route of administration and composition of the diet. Crit. Care Med. 1998;26:24-30.

Browning LM.n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and obesity-related disease. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62:447-453.

Burrin DG, Stoll B. Key nutrients and growth factors for the neonatal gastrointestinal tract. Clin Perinatol. 2002;29(1):65-96.

Calder PC, Field CJ. Fatty acids, inflammation and immunity. In: Calder PC, Field CJ, Gill HS, eds. Nutrition and immune function. Wallingford, New York: CAB International; 2002: 57–92.

Calder PC, Kew S.The immune system: a target for functional foods? Br J Nutr 2002; 88, Suppl. 2:165–177.

Carroll MC. Complement and humoral immunity.Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 8:I28-33.

Chan JK, McDonald BE, Gerrard JM. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid and its ratio to linoleic acid on platelet and plasma fatty acids and thrombogenesis. Lipids.1993;28:811-817.

Chandra RK: Effect of post-natal protein malnutrition and intrauterine growth retardation on immunity and risk of infection. In: Calder PC, Field CJ, Gill HS, eds. Nutrition and immune function. New York: CABI Publishing, 2002; 41-56.

Chorazy M, Kontny E, Marcinkiewicz J, Maslinski W. Taurine chloramine modulates cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Amino Acids. 2002;23:407–13.

Cleland LG, James MJ, Neumann MA. Linoleate inhibits EPA incorporation from dietary fish-oil supplements in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:395-399.

Cohen J. The immunopathogenesis of sepsis. Nature 2002; 420: 885–891.

Daly JM, Lieberman MD, Goldfine JD. Enteral nutrition with supplemental arginine, RNA, and ω-3 fatty acids in patients after operation: immunologic, metabolic, and clinical outcome. Surgery. 1992;112:56-67.

De Caterina R, Cybulsky MA, Clinton SK et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1995; 52: 191–195.

De Caterina R, Cybulsky MI, Clinton SK et al. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate reduces cytokine-induced expression of proatherogenic and proinflammatory proteins in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb 1994; 14: 1829–1836.

De Vrese M, Schrezenmeir J: Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 2008; 111: 1-66.

Delves PJ, Roitt IM: The immune system.First of two parts. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 37-49.

Dröge W, Breitkreutz R. N-acetyl-cysteine in the therapy of HIV-positive patients.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care.1999; 2: 493–498.

Dröge W, Eck HP, Gmünder H, Mihm S: Modulation of lymphocyte functions and immune responses by cysteine and cysteine derivatives. Am J Med 1991;91 Suppl. 3C: 140-144.

Dröge W: Cysteine and glutathione deficiency in AIDS patients: A rationale for the treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine. Pharmacology 1993;46: 61-65.

Dunham BM, Hechtman HB, Valeri CR, Shepro D. Antiinflammatory agens inhibit microvascular permeability induced by leucotrienes and by stimulated human neutrophils. Microcirc. Endth. Lymph. 1984;1:465.

Efron DT, Barbul A. Modulation of inflammation and immunity by arginine supplements. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998;1:531–8.

Eiwegger T: Prebiotic oligosaccharides: in vitro evidence for gastrointestinal epithelial transfer and immunomodulatory properties. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010; 21(8): 1179-88.

Endres S, Ghorbani R, Kelley VE et al. The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 265–271.

Engel JM, Mühling J, Weiss S, Kärcher B, Löhr T, Menges T, Little S, Hempelmann G. Relationship of taurine and other amino acids in plasma and in neutrophils of septic trauma patients. Amino Acids. 2006;30:87-94.

Famularo G, Tzantzoglou S, Santini G, Trinchieri V, Moretti S, Koverech A, De Simone C. L-carnitine: a partner between immune response and lipid metabolism ? Mediators Inflamm. 1993;2:S29-32.

Fan J, Edsen-Moore MR, Turner LE, Cook RT, Legge KL, Waldschmidt TJ, Schlueter AJ. Mechanisms by which chronic ethanol feeding limits the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate T-cell proliferation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:47-59

Fearon DT, Locksley RM: The instructive role of innate immunity in the acquired immune response. Science 1996, 272: 50-53.

Fischer S, von Schacky C, Schweer H. Prostaglandins E3 and F3 alpha are excreted in human urine after ingestion of n – 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1988;963:501–8

Franchi S, Sacerdote P, Moretti S, Gerra G, Leccese V, Tallone MV, Panerai AE, Somaini L. The effects of alcoholism pharmacotherapy on immune responses in alcohol-dependent patients. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:847-55.

Fürst P, Kuhn KS. Fish oil emulsions: what benefits can they bring? Clin Nutr. 2000;19: 7–14.

Garrel D, Patenaude J, Nedelec B, Samson L, Dorais J, Champoux J, D’Elia M, Bernier J. Decreased mortality and infectious morbidity in adult burn patients given enteral glutamine supplements: a prospective, controlled, randomized clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 2003 Oct;31(10):2444-9.

Geggel HS, Ament ME, Heckenlively JR, Martin DA, Kopple BS, Kopple JD. Nutritional requirement for taurine in patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition.N En312 gl Med. 1985: 142–146.

Gianotti L, Braga M, Vignali A, Cestari A, Di Carlo V. Effect of route of delivery and formulation of postoperative nutritional support in patients undergoing major operations for malignant neoplasms. Arch. Surg. 1997;132:1222-1230.

Goral J, Karavitis J, Kovacs EJ. Exposure-dependent effects of ethanol on the innate immune system. Alcohol. 2008;42:237-47.

Gottschlich MM, Jenkins M, Warden GD. Differential effects of three dietary regimes on selected outcome variables in burn patients. JPEN 1990;14:225-236.

Grimble RF, Grimble GK. Role of sulfur amino acids, related amino acids, and polyamines. Nutrition. 1998; 14: 605–610.

Grimble RF: Nutritional antioxidants and the modulation of inflammation: theory and practice. New Horizonts 1994;2:175-185.

Hao J, Shen W, Tian C, Liu Z, Ren J, Luo C, Long J, Sharman E, Liu J. Mitochondrial nutrients improve immune dysfunction in the type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. J Cell Mol Med. 2009 Apr;13:701-11

Heller A, Koch T. Immunonutrition with omega-3-fatty acids. Are new anti-inflammatory strategies in sight? Zentralbl Chir 2000;125:123–36.

Hirai A, Hamazaki T, Terano T, Nishikawa T, Tamura Y, Kamugai A, Jajiki J. Eicosapentaenoic acid and platelet function in Japanese. Lancet 1980;2:1132–3.

Huppertz B, Frank HG, Kaufmann P. The apoptosis cascade – morphological and immunohistochemical methods for its visualization. Anat Embryol 1999;200:1-18.

Hwang D. Essential fatty acids and immune response. FASEB J. 1989;3:2052-2061.

Immunologie der Infektabwehr. In: Dieter Adam, H. W. Doerr, H. Link, H. Lode, Die Infektiologie; Springer Verlag 2004

Janeway CA Jr, Medzhitov R: Innate immune recognition. Annu Rev Immunol 2002, 20: 197-216.

Janeway Jr CA, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik M J: Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease. 6. Ed, Thomson Publishing Service, 2005, England

Jolly CA, Fernandes G: Protein-energy malnutrition and infectious disease. In: Gershwin ME, German JB, Keen CL, eds. Nutrition and immunology: principles and practice. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 2000; 195-202

Knapp H R. Prostaglandins in human semen during fish oil ingestion: evidence for in vivo cyclooxygenase inhibition and appearance of novel trienoic compounds. Prostaglandins 1990;39:407–23.

Knapp H R, Fitzgerald G A. The antihypertensive effects of fish oil. A controlled study of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements in essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 1989;320:1037–43.

Kontny E, Szczepanska K, Kowalczewski J, Kurowska M, Janicka I, Marcinkiewicz J, Maslinski W. The mechanism of taurine chloramine inhibition of cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-8) production by rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:2169–77.

Lind DS. Arginine and cancer. J Nutr 2004; 134: 2837–2841.

Lomax AR: Prebiotics, immune function, infection and inflammation: a review of the evidence. – Br J Nutr 2009; 101: 633-58.

Mackay I, Rosen FS: The immune system. Part I. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 37–49.

Mackay I, Rosen FS: The immune system. Part II. N Engl J Med 2000; 343, 108–117.

Mandal A. Do malnutrition and nutritional supplementation have an effect on the wound healing process? J Wound Care. 2006;15:254–7.

Mandrekar P, Bala S, Catalano D, Kodys K, Szabo G. The opposite effects of acute and chronic alcohol on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation are linked to IRAK-M in human monocytes. J Immunol. 2009;183:1320-7

Mandrekar P, Catalano D, Dolganiuc A, Kodys K, Szabo G. Inhibition of myeloid dendritic cell accessory cell function and induction of T cell anergy by alcohol correlates with decreased IL-12 production. J Immunol. 2004;173:3398-407.

Marlett JA. Content and composition of dietary fiber in 117 frequently consumed foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 1992;92(2):175-186.

Mascioli EA, Iwasa Y, Trimbo S. Endotoxin challenge after menhaden oil diet: Effect on survival of guinea pigs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1989;49:277.

Mayer K, Merfels M, Muhly-Reinholz M et al. Omega-3 fatty acids suppress monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells: role of endothelial PAF generation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002; 283: 811–818.

Mayer K, Seeger W, Grimminger F. Clinical use of lipids to control inflammatory disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998; 1: 178–184.

McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2650–2661

Melis G, ter Wengal N, Boelens PG, van Leeuwen PA. Glutamine: recent developments in research on the clinical significance of glutamine. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2004;7:59–70.

Meydani SN, Endres S, Woods MM. Oral (n-3) fatty acid supplementation suppresses cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation: comparison between young and older women. J Nutr. 1991;121:547-555.

Meydani SN, Lichtenstein AH, Cormwall S. Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived n-3 fatty acid enrichment. J Clin Invest. 1993;92:105-113.

Morlion BJ, Torwesten E, Lessire A, et al. The effect of parenteral fish oil on leukocyte membrane fatty acid composition and leukotriene-synthesizing capacity in postoperative trauma. Metabolism. 1996; 45:1208–1213.

Nathan C, Xie Q. Nitric oxide synthases: rolls, tolls and controls. Cell. 1994; 78: 915–918.

Newsholme EA,Calder PC. The proposed role of glutamine in some cells of the immune system and speculative consequences for the whole animal.Nutrition 1997;13, 728-30.

Newsholme P. Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, surgery or infection? J Nut 2001;131(suppl):2515–22S

Niness KR. Inulin and oligofructose: what are they? J Nutr. 1999;129(7 Suppl):1402S-1406S.

Nye KE: The basics of immunology for the non-immunologist. In: Hughes DA, Darlington LG, Bendich A, eds. Diet and human immune function. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 2004; 3-15.

Parham P: T cell-mediated immunity. The immune system, 2nd ed. New York: Garland Science Publishing, 2005; 145-178.

Parkin J, Cohen B: An overview on the immune system. Lancet 2001;357: 1777–1789.

Popovic PJ, Zeh HJ 3rd, Ochoa JB. Arginine and immunity.J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 2):1681S-1686S.

Powell J, Borchers AT, Yoshida S, Gershwin ME: Evaluation of the immune system in the nutritionally at-risk host. In: Gershwin ME, German JB, Keen CL, eds. Nutrition and immunology: principles and practice. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 2000; 21-31

Redmond HP, Stapleton PP, Neary P, Bouchier-Hayes D. Immunonutrition: the role of taurine.Nutrition. 1998;14:599-604.

Roberfroid MB: Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(6 Suppl): 1682S-7S.

Romeo J, Wärnberg J, Nova E, Díaz LE, González-Gross M, Marcos A. Changes in the immune system after moderate beer consumption. Ann Nutr Metab. 2007;51:359-66.

Roth E. Parenterale und enterale Immunonutrition. Chir Gastroenterol 2004; 20: 210–215.

Saalmüller A, Werner T, Fachinger V: T-helper cells from naive to committed. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 2002;87: 137-145.

Sabater-Molina M, Larqué E, Torrella F, Zamora S: Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health. J Physiol Biochem 2009; 65: 315–28.

Schütt C, Bröker B: Grundwissen Immunologie. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag Heidelber, 3. Auflage, Springer 2011

Scrimshaw NS, Taylor CE, Gordon JE: Effects of infections on nutritional status. In Interactions of Nutrition and Infection, pp. 44–46. Geneva: World Health Organization, Monograph Series 57, 1968.

Seifert S: Inulin and oligofructose: review of experimental data on immune modulation. J Nutr 2007; 137(11 Suppl): 2563S-2567S.

Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:495-505.

Spittler A, Winkler S, Go¨tzinger P, Oehler R, Willheim M, Tempfer C, Weigel G, Függer R, Boltz Nitulescu G & Roth E: Influence of glutamine on the phenotype and function of human monocytes. Blood 1995; 86, 1564–1569.

Stehle P. Immunonutrition – Nährstoffe mit immunmodulierender Wirkung. Teil 1: Aminosäuren. Ernähr-Umschau. 2000; 47: 216–222.

Stehle P. Immunonutrition – Nährstoffe mit immunmodulierender Wirkung. Teil 2: Nukleotide und mehrfach ungesättigte Fettsäuren. Ernähr Umschau. 2000; 47: 292–297.

Thangasamy T, Subathra M, Sittadjody S, Jeyakumar P, Joyee AG, Mendoza E, Chinnakkanu P. Role of L-carnitine in the modulation of immune response in aged rats. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;389:19-24.

The immune system. In: Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, et al., eds. Molecular biology of the cell, 3rd ed. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc, 1994; 1195-1254.

Tong BC, Barbul A. Cellular and physiological effects of arginine. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004;4:823–32.

Vos AP: Specific prebiotic oligosaccharides modulate the early phase of a murine vaccination response. Int Immunopharmacol 2010; 10(5): 619-25.

Walter Siegenthaler: Klinische Pathophysiologie; Thieme Verlag 2006

Wernerman J & Hammarqvist F: Modulation of endogenous glutathione availability. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 1999; 2, 487–492.

West NP, Pyne DB, Peake JM, Cripps AW: Probiotics, immunity and exercise: a review. Exerc Immunol Rev 2009; 15: 107-26.

Wilhelm W: Praxis der Intensivmedizin: Konkret, kompakt, interdisziplinär, Springer Verlag, 2011

Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH: Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function. Ann Nutr Met 2007;51: 301–323.

Wu G, Morris SM Jr. Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond. Biochem J. 1998;336:1–17

Young V, Ajami A. Glutamine: the emperor or his clothes? J Nutr 2001;131(suppl):2449–59S.

Aderele WI, Ette SI, Oduwole O, et al: Plasma vitamin C (ascorbic acid) levels in asthmatic children. Afr J Med MedSci 1985; 14: 115 – 120.

Akyön Y: Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori. ClinMicrobiol Infect 2002; 8: 438 – 441

Aloia JF, Li-Ng M. Re: epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect 2007;135:1095–6

Altare F, Durandy A, Lammas D, Emile JF, Lamhamedi S, Le Deist F, Drysdale P, Jouanguy E, Doffinger R, Bernaudin F, Jeppsson O, Gollob JA, Meinl E, Segal AW, Fischer A, Kumararatne D, Casanova JL. Impairment of mycobacterial immunity in human interleukin-12 receptor deficiency. Science 1998;280:1432–5.

Ames BN, Shigenaga MK & Hagen TM: Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative disease of aging. ProcNatlAcadSci USA 1993; 90, 7915–7922

Anderson R, Oosthuizen R, Maritz R, Theron A, Van Rensburg AJ.The effects of increasing weekly doses of ascorbate on certain cellular and humoral immune functions in normal volunteers.Am J ClinNutr. 1980;33:71-76

Anderson R, Smit MJ, Joone GK, et al: Vitamin C and cellular immune functions. Protection against hypochlorous acid-mediated inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP generation in human leukocytes as a possible mechanism of ascorbate-mediated immunostimulation.Ann NY AcadSci 1990; 587: 34 – 48.

Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ: Selenium in the immune system. J Nutr 2003; 133 (5 Suppl 1): 1457S-9S.

Bailey LB & Gregory JF III. Folate. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 9th ed., chapter 22, pp. 278–301, BA Bowman and RM Russel, editors. Washington, DC: ILSI Press, 2006

Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd: Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr 1999; 129: 779-82.

Bala S, Failla ML, Lunney JK. Alterations in splenic lymphoid cell subsets and activation antigens in copper-deficient rats.J Nutr. 1991; 121:745–53.

Bala S, Failla ML. Copper deficiency reversibly impairs DNA synthesis in activated T lymphocytes by limiting interleukin 2 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992;89:6794–7.

Bala S, Failla ML. Copper repletion restores the number and function of CD4 cells in copper-deficient rats. J Nutr. 1993;123:991–6

Balmer JE, Blomhoff R: Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid. J Lipid Res 2002; 43: 1773-808.

Bao B, Prasad AS, Beck FWJ, Snell DC, Suneja A, Sarkar FH, Doshi N, Fitzgerald JT, Swerdlow P. Zinc supplementation decreases oxidative stress, incidence of infection, and generation of inflammatory cytokines in sickle cell disease. Translational Res 2008;152:67–80.

Bates CJ. Vitamin A. Lancet. 1995 Jan 7;345:31-5.

Baum MK, Miguez-Burbano MJ, Campa A, Shor-Posner G. Selenium and interleukins in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 2000 Sep;182 Suppl 1:S69-73.

Beard J. Iron. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM,eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:430-444.

Beard JL. Iron biology in immune function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning. J Nutr. 2001;131:568S-579S.

Beck FWJ, Prasad AS, Kaplan J, Fitzgerald JT, Brewer GJ.Changes in cytokines production and T cell subpopulations in experimentally induced zinc-deficient humans. Am J Physiol1997;272:E1002–E1007.

Biltagi MA, Baset AA, Bassiouny M, et al: Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study. ActaPaediatr 2009; 98: 737 – 742.

Blomhoff HK, Smeland EB, Erikstein B, et al.: Vitamin A is a key regulator for cell growth, cytokine production, and differentiation in normal B cells. J BiolChem 1992; 267: 23988-92

Bobat R, Coovadia H, Stephen C, Naidook L, McKerrow N, Black RE, Moss WJ: Safety and efficacy of zinc supplementation for children with HIV-1 infection in South Africa: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:1862–1867.

Broome C S: An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004; 80,154–162.

Bruce D, Ooi JH, Yu S, Cantorna MT. Vitamin D and host resistance to infection? Putting the cart in front of the horse. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2010;235:921–7

Bruno EJ Jr, Ziegenfuss TN, Landis J: Vitamin C: research update. Curr Sports Med Rep 2006; 5: 177 – 181.

Bucca C, Rolla G, Farina JC: Effect of vitamin C on transient increase of bronchial responsiveness in conditions affecting the airways. Ann NY AcadSci 1992; 669: 175 – 186

Bunout D, Barrera G, Hirsch S, Gattas V, de la Maza MP, Haschke F, Steenhout P, Klassen P, Hager C, Avendano M, PetermannM, Munoz C. Effects of a nutritional supplement on the immune response and cytokine production in free-living Chilean elderly. J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 2004; 28, 348–354.

Burns EA & Goodwin JS.Effect of aging on immune function. J Nutr Health Aging 2004;8, 9–18.

Bussière L, Mazur A, Gueux E, Nowacki W &Rayssiguier Y: Trigliceride-rich lipoproteins from magnesium-deficient rats are more susceptible to oxidation by cells and promote proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Magnesium Res. 1995;8, 151–158

Cannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, Holick MF, Grant WB, Madronich S, Garland CF, Giovannucci E. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect 2006;134:1129–40

Cantorna MT, Zhu Y, Froicu M, Wittke A. Vitamin D status, 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D3, and the immune system. Am J ClinNutr 2004;80, 1717S–1720S.

Carr AC, Frei B: Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am J ClinNutr 1999; 69: 1086 – 1107.

Castle S. Clinical relevance of age-related immune dysfunction.ClinInf Dis 2000;31, 578–585.

Chambon P. A decade of molecular biology of retinoic acid receptors. FASEB J. 1996;10:940-54.

Chandra RK, Sudhakaran L: Regulation of immune responses by vitamin B6. Ann N Y AcadSci 1990; 585: 404-23.

Chang X, Mowat DN, Mallard BA. 1994. Supplemental chromium and niacin for stressed feeder calves. Can J Anim Sci 1994; 75:351-358.

Chang X, Mowat DN, Spiers GA. Carcass characteristics and tissue mineral contents of steers fed supplemental chromium. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 1992; 72:663-669.

Chew BP, Park JS. Carotenoid action on the immune response. J Nutr. 2004;134:257S-261S.

Chien MM, Zahradka KE, Newell MK & Freed JH: Fas-induced B cell apoptosis requires an increase in free cytosolic magnesium as an early event. J. Biol. Chem. 1999; 274, 7059–7066

Christopoulos AI, Diamantopoulos AA, Dimopoulos PA, Goumenos DS, Barbalias GA. Risk factors for tuberculosis in dialysis patients: a prospective multi-center clinical trial. BMC Nephrol 2009;10:36.

Cohen HA, Neuman I, Nahum H: Blocking effect of vitamin C in exercise-induced asthma. Arch PediatrAdolesc Med 1997; 151: 367 – 370.

Coovadia HM, BobatR : Zinc deficiency and supplementation in HIV/AIDS. Nutr Res 2002;22: 179– 191

Courtemanche C, Elson-Schwab I, Mashiyama ST, Kerry N, Ames BN. Folate deficiency inhibits the proliferation of primary human CD8+ T lymphocytes in vitro. J Immunol. 2004;173:3186-92.

Dahl H, Degre M.The effect of ascorbic acid on production of human interferon and the antiviral activity in vitro.ActaPatholMicrobiolScand B. 1976;84B:280-284.

Darlow BA, Graham PJ. Vitamin A supplementation to prevent mortality and short and long-term morbidity in very low birthweight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD000501. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(10):CD000501.

Delafuente JC, Prendergast JM, Modigh A. Immunologic modulation by vitamin C in the elderly. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1986;8:205-211.

DeLuca HF, Cantorna MT, Vitamin D: its role and uses in immunology. FASEB J 2001;15, 2579–2585.

Dhur A, Galan P, Hercberg S: Folate status and the immune system. Prog Food NutrSci 1991; 15: 43-60.

Douglas RM, Hemilä H, Chalker E, et al: Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; CD000980

Duthie SJ, Horgan G, de Roos B, Rucklidge G, Reid M, Duncan G, Pirie L, BastenGP, Powers HJ. Blood folate status and expression of proteins involved in immune function, inflammation, and coagulation: biochemical and proteomic changes in the plasma of humans in response to long-term synthetic folic acid supplementation. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:1941-50.

Elemraid MA, Mackenzie IJ, Fraser WD, Harper G, Faragher B, Atef Z, Al-Aghbari N, Brabin BJ. A case-control study of nutritional factors associated with chronic suppurative otitis media in Yemeni children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(8):895-902.

Erkurt MA: Effects of cyanocobalamin on immunity in patients with pernicious anemia. Med PrincPract 2008; 17: 131-5.

Failla ML, Babu U, Seidel KE. Use of immunoresponsiveness to demonstrate that the dietary requirement for copper in young rats is greater with dietary fructose than dietary starch.J Nutr. 1988;118:487–96.

Fata FT, Herzlich B, Schiffman G &Ast AL. Impaired antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide in elderly patients with low serum vitamin B12 levels. Ann InternMed 1996; 124, 299–304.

Fawzi WW, Chalmers TC, Herrera MG, Mosteller F. Vitamin A supplementation and child mortality. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1993;269:898-903.

Fawzi WW, Villamor E, Msamanga GI, Antelman G, Aboud S, Urassa W, Hunter D: Trial of zinc supplements in relation to pregnancy outcomes, hematologic indicators, and T cell counts among HIV-1- infected women in Tanzania. Am J ClinNutr 2005;81:161–167.

Field CJ, Johnson IR, Schley PD. Nutrients and their role in host resistance to infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;71:16-32.

Fischer Walker C, Black RE: Zinc and the risk for infectious disease. Ann Rev Nutr 2004;24:255–275.

Flodin NW (ed): Vitamin C. In: Pharmacology of Micronutrients. New York: Alan R Liss, 1988; pp 201 – 244

Fraker PJ, De Pasquale-Jardieu R, Zwickl, Luecke RW: Regeneration of T-cell helper function in zinc-deficient adult mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1978;75:5660–5664

Fraker PJ, King LE, Laakko T, Vollmer TL. The dynamic link between the integrity of the immune system and zinc status.J Nutr. 2000 May;130(5S Suppl):1399S-406S.

Fraker PJ, King LE: Reprogramming of the immune system during zinc deficiency. Ann Rev Nutr 2004;24, 277–298.

Frost P, Rabbani P, Smith J, Prasad AS: Cell mediated cytotoxicity and tumor growth in zinc deficient mice. ProcSocExpBiol Med 167:333–337, 1981.

Galland L: Magnesium and immune function: an overview. Magnesium 1988; 7, 290–299.

George J, Bhatia VN, Balakrishnan S, Ramu G: Serum zinc/copper ratio in subtypes of leprosy and effect of oral zinc therapy on reactional states. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 1991;59:20–24.

Ghishan FK: Transport of electrolytes, water, and glucose in zinc deficiency. J PediatrGastroenterolNutr 1984;3:608–612.

Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA Jr. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:384–90

Gladyshev VN: Selenoproteins and selenoproteomes. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in human health, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2006; 99-114.

Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ. 1993 Feb 6;306:366-70.

Gogia S, Sachdev HS. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation for prevention of mortality and morbidity in infancy: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2009;27;338:b919

Goodman KJ, Correa P, Tenganá Aux HJ, et al: Nutritional factors and Helicobacter pylori infection in Colombian children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997; 25: 507 – 515.

Griffin MD, Xing N, Kumar R. Vitamin D and its analogs as regulators of immune activities and antigen presentation. Annu Rev Nutr2003;23, 117–145.

Haertel C, Strunk T, Bucsky P & Schultz C: Effects of vitamin C on intracytoplasmic cytokine production in human whole blood monocytes and lymphocytes. Cytokine 2004; 27, 101–106.

Haque KM, Binder HJ: Zinc in the treatment of acute diarrhea: current status and assessment. Gastroenterology 2006;130:2201–2205.

Härtel C, Puzik A, Göpel W, et al: Immunomodulatory effect of vitamin C on intracytoplasmic cytokine production in neonatal cord blood cells. Neonatology 2007; 91: 54 – 60.

Härtel C, Strunk T, Bucsky P, et al: Effects of vitamin C on intracytoplasmic cytokine production in human whole blood monocytes and lymphocytes. Cytokine 2004; 27: 101 – 106.

Hatch GE: Asthma, inhaled oxidants, and dietary antioxidants. Am J ClinNutr 1995; 61(3 suppl): 625S – 630S.

Hawk SN, Lanoue L, Keen CL, Kwik-Uribe CL, Rucker RB, Uriu-Adams JY. Copper-deficient rat embryos are characterized by low superoxide dismutase activity and elevated superoxide anions. BiolReprod. 2003;68:896–903

Hayes CE, Nashold FE, Spach KM & Pedersen LB.The immunological functions of the vitamin D endocrine system. Cell MolecBiol 2003;49, 277–300.

Heresi G, Castillo-Durán C, Muñoz C, Arévalo M, Schlesinger L. Phagocytosis and immunoglobulin levels in hypocupremic infants. Nutrition Research 1985;5, 1327–1334.

Hopkins RG, Failla ML. Chronic intake of a marginally low copper diet impairs in vitro activities of lymphocytes and neutrophils from male rats despite minimal impact on conventional indicators of copper status. J Nutr. 1995;125:2658–68.

Hopkins RG, Failla ML. Copper deficiency reduces interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and IL-2 mRNA in human T-lymphocytes. J Nutr.1997; 127:257–62.

Hopkins RG, Failla ML. Transcriptional regulation of interleukin-2 gene expression is impaired by copper deficiency in Jurkat human T lymphocytes. J Nutr. 1999;129:596–601.

Huang ZL, Failla ML. Copper deficiency suppresses effector activities of differentiated U937 cells. J Nutr. 2000;130:1536–42.

Hughes,Virginia. Cultural differences. Nature 2012; 492, 14 – 15

Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, Jarvelin MR &Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet 2001;358, 1500–1503.

Ibs KH, Rink L. Zinc-altered immune function. J Nutr 2003; 133, 1452S–1456S.

Ibs K-H, Rink L: Zinc. In: Hughes DA, Darlington LG, Bendich A, eds. Diet and human immune function. Totowa, New Jersey: Human Press Inc., 2004; 241-259

Ibs KH, Rink L: Zinc-altered immune function. J Nutr 2003; 133(5 Suppl 1): 1452S-6S.

Imdad A, Yakoob MY, Sudfeld C, Haider BA, Black RE, Bhutta ZA. Impact ofvitamin A supplementation on infant and childhood mortality. BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 3:S20.

Isanaka S, Mugusi F, Urassa W, Willett WC, Bosch RJ, Villamor E, Spiegelman D, Duggan C, Fawzi WW. Iron deficiency and anemia predict mortality in patients with tuberculosis. J Nutr. 2012;142:350-7.

Jacob RA, Kelley DS, Pianalto FS, Swendseid ME, Henning SM, Zhang JZ, Ames BN, Fraga CG, Peters JH: Immunocompetence and oxidant defense during ascorbate depletion of healthy men. Am J ClinNutr 1991; 54, 1302S–1309S.

Jariwalla RJ, Harakeh S: Antiviral and immunomodulatory activities of ascorbic acid. In: Subcellular Biochemistry Ascorbic Acid: Biochemistry and Biomedical Cell Biology (Harris JR, ed). New York: Plenum Press, 1996; pp 215– 231

Johnson WT, DeMars LC. Increased heme oxygenase-1 expression during copper deficiency in rats results from increased mitochondrial generation of hydrogen peroxide. J Nutr. 2004;134:1328–33.

Johnson WT, Newman SM Jr. Hearts in adult offspring of copperdeficient dams exhibit decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide generation and enhanced formation of intracellular residual bodies. J NutrBiochem. 2007;18:97–104

JohnsonWT, Thomas AC. Copper deprivation potentiates oxidative stress in HL-60 cell mitochondria. ProcSocExpBiol Med. 1999;221:147–52.

Johnston CS, Martin LJ, Cai X: Antihistamine effect of supplemental ascorbic acid and neutrophil chemotaxis. J Am CollNutr 1992; 11: 172 – 176.

Johnston CS, Retrum KR, Srilakshmi JC: Antihistamine effects and complications of supplemental vitamin C. J Am Diet Assoc 1992; 92: 988 – 989.

Kabashima H, Nagata K, Maeda K, Iijima T: Involvement of substance P, mast cells, TNF alpha and ICAM-1 in the infiltration of inflammatory cells in human periapical granulomas. Oral Pathol. Med. 2002;83, 175–180.

Kampmann B, Hemingway C, Stephens A, Davidson R, Goodsall A, Anderson S, Nicol M, Scholvinck E, Relman D, Waddell S, Langford P, Sheehan B, Semple L, Wilkinson KA, Wilkinson RJ, Ress S, Hibberd M, Levin M. Acquired predisposition to mycobacterial disease due to autoantibodies to IFN-gamma. J Clin Invest 2005;115:2480–8.

Karyadi E, West CE, Schultink W, Nelwan RH, Gross R, Amin Z, Dolmans WM, Schlebusch H, Vandeermeer JW: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of vitamin A and zinc supplementation in persons with tuberculosis in Indonesia: effects on clinical response and nutritional status. Am J ClinNutr 2002;75:720–727.

Kashimura H, Suzuki K, Hassan M, Ikezawa K, Sawahata T, Watanabe T, Nakahara A, Mutoh H, Tanaka N: Polaprezinc, a muscosal protective agent, in combination with lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin increases the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment PharmacolTher1999;13:483– 487.

Keane J, Gershon S, Wise RP, Mirabile-Levens E, Kasznica J, Schwieterman WD, Siegel JN, Braun MM. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor alpha-neutralizing agent. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1098–104.

Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M, Glickman R, Schneider K, Rothstein S, Cooper J, Hochster H, Kim M, Newman R. Selenium and immunocompetence in patients with head and neck cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000;73:97-111.

Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M, Wishe HI, Cohen MW, Stotzky G: Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. II. Effect on cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Biol Trace Elem Res 1994; 41(1-2): 115-27.

Knight JA: Review: Free radicals, antioxidants, and the immune system. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2000; 30: 145 – 158.

Ko WS, Guo CH, Hsu GS, Chiou YL, Yen MS, Yaun SR: The effect of zinc supplementation on the treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients with interferon and ribavirin. ClinBiochem 2005;38:614– 620.

Koller LD, Mulhern SA, Frankel NC, Steven MG, Williams JR. Immune dysfunction in rats fed a diet deficient in copper. Am J ClinNutr. 1987;45:997–1006.

KonigD,Weinstock C, Keul J, Northoff H, Berg A : Zinc, iron, and magnesium status in athletes–influence on the regulation of exercise-induced stress and immune function. Exerc.Immunol. Rev.1998;4, 2–21.

Korant BD, Kauer JC, Butterworth BE: Zinc ions inhibit replication of rhinoviruses. Nature 1974;248:588–590.

Kumel G, Schrader S, Zentgraf H, Daus H, Brendel M: The mechanism of the antiherpetic activity of zinc sulphate. J Gen Virol 1990;71:2989–2997.

Lawrence RA, Jenkinson SG.Effects of copper deficiency on carbon tetrachloride-induced lipid peroxidation. J Lab Clin Med. 1987;109: 134–40.

Lee CYJ & Wan JMF.Vitamin E supplementation improves cell-mediated immunity and oxidative stress of Asian men and women. J Nutr 2000;130, 2932–2937.

Lemire JM, Archer DC, Beck L, Spiegelberg HL. Immunosuppressive actions of 1,25(OH)2D3: preferential inhibition of Th1 functions. J Nutr 1995; 125, 1704S–1708S.

Levine M, Dhariwal KR, Wang Y, et al: Ascorbic acid in neutrophils. In: Natural Antioxidants in Health and Disease (Frei B, ed). San Diego: Academic Press, 1994; pp 469 –488

Levy R, Shriker O, Porath A, et al: Vitamin C for the treatment of recurrent furunculosis in patients with impaired neutrophil functions. J Infect Dis 1996; 173: 1502 – 1505.

Li-Ng MAJ, Pollack S, Cunha BA, Mikhail M, Yeh J, Berbari N. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation for the prevention of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections.Epidemiol Infect 2009;137:1396–404.

Lukasewycz OA, Prohaska JR, Meyer SG, Schmidtke JR, Hatfield SM, Marder P. Alterations in lymphocyte subpopulations in copper-deficient mice. Infect Immun. 1985;48:644–7.

Malpuech-Brugère C, Nowacki W, Daveau M, Gueux E, LinardCh, Rock E, Lebreton JP, Mazur A &Rayssiguier Y: Inflammatory response following acute magnesium deficiency in the rat. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1501, 91–98.

Malpuech-Brugère C, Nowacki W, Gueux E, Kuryszko J, Rock E, Rayssiguier Y & Mazur A: Accelerated thymus involution in magnesium-deficient rats is related to enhanced apoptosis and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Br J Nutr 1999;81, 405–411.

Mathison G W, Engstrom DF. Chromium and protein supplements for growing-finishing beef steers fed barley-based diets. Can J Anim Sci 1995;75:549-558

Mathur N, Bumb RA, Mangal HN: Oral zinc in recurrent Erythema NodosumLeprosum reaction. Lepr India 1983;55:547–552.

Mathur NK, Bumb RA, Mangal HN, Sharma ML: Oral zinc as an adjunct to dapsone in lepromatous leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 1984;52:331–338.

McCoy H & Kenney MA: Interactions between magnesium and vitamin D: possible implications in the immune system. MagnesiumRes. 1996;9, 185–203.

McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ, Arthur JR: Effects of selenium on immunity and aging. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in human health, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2006; 311-323.

Meydani SN, Barnett JB, Dallal GE, Fine BC, Jacques PF, Leka LS, Hamer DH: Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly. Am J ClinNutr 86:1167–1173, 2007.

Meydani SN, Han SN, Wu D: Vitamin E and immune response in the aged: molecular mechanism and clinical implications. Immunol Rev 2005; 205, 269–284

Meydani SN, Meydani M, Blumberg JB, Leka LS, Siber G, Loszewski R, Thompson C, Pedrosa MC, Diamond RD, Stollar BD. Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects. A randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 1997; 277, 1380–1386.

Meydani SN, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Russell RM, Sahyoun N, Morrow FD, Gershoff SN.Vitamin B-6 deficiency impairs interleukin 2 production and lymphocyte proliferation in elderly adults. Am J ClinNutr. 1991;53:1275-1280.

Meydani SN, Wu D, Santos MS, et al: Antioxidants and immune response in aged persons: overview of present evidence. Am J ClinNutr 1995; 62(6 suppl): 1462S – 1476S.

Mookherjee N, Rehaume LM, Hancock RE. Cathelicidins and functional analogues as antisepsis molecules. Expert OpinTher Targets 2007;11:993–1004.

Mortola E, Okuda M, Ohno K, et al: Inhibition of apoptosis and virus replication in feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cells by Nacetylcysteine and ascorbic acid. J Vet Med Sci 1998; 60: 1187 – 1193.

Newberne PM, Hunt CE, Young VR. The role of diet and the reticuloendothelial system in the response of rats to Salmonella typhilmurium infection.Br J ExpPathol. 1968;49:448–57

Newport MJ, Huxley CM, Huston S, Hawrylowicz CM, Oostra BA, Williamson R, Levin M. A mutation in the interferon-gamma-receptor gene and susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1941–9.

Oppenheimer SJ.Iron and its relation to immunity and infectious disease.J Nutr 2001;131, 616S–635S.

Overbeck S, Rink L, Haase H: Modulating the immune response by oral zinc supplementation: A single approach for multiple diseases. Arch ImmunolTherExp 2008; 56:15–30.

Panush RS, Delafuente JC, Katz P, et al: Modulation of certain immunologic responses by vitamin C. III. Potentiation of in vitro and in vivo lymphocyte responses.Int J VitamNutr Res Suppl 1982; 23: 35 – 47.

Park JH, Kim SY, Kim DW, et al: Correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and vitamin C levels in whole blood, plasma, and gastric juice, and the pH of gastric juice in Korean children. J PediatrGastroenterolNutr 2003; 37: 53 – 62.

Patrone F, Dallegri F, Bonvini E, et al: Effects of ascorbic acid on neutrophil function. Studies on normal and chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils. ActaVitaminolEnzymol 1982; 4: 163 – 168.

Percival SS: Copper and immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67(5 Suppl): 1064S-1068S.

Potential interventions for the prevention of childhood pneumonia in developing countries: a meta-analysis of data from field trials to assess the impact of vitamin A supplementation on pneumonia morbidity and mortality. The Vitamin A and Pneumonia Working Group. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73:609-19.

Prasad AS, Beck FWJ, Bao B, Fitzgerald JT, Snell DC, Steinberg JD, Cardozo LJ: Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: Effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stress. Am J ClinNutr 2007 85: 2007;837–844.

Prasad AS, Beck FWJ, Bao B, Snell D, Fitzgerald JT: Duration and severity of symptoms and levels of plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor, and adhesion molecules in patients with common cold treated with zinc acetate. J Inf Dis 2008;197:795–802.

Prasad AS, Meftah S, Abdallah J, Kaplan J, Brewer GJ, Bach JF, Dardenne M: Serum Thymulin in human zinc deficiency. J Clin Invest 1988;82:1202–1210.

Prasad AS: Effects of zinc deficiency on immune functions. J Trace Elem Exp Med 2000;13, 1–30.

Prohaska JR, Lukasewycz OA. Copper deficiency suppresses the immune response of mice. Science. 1981;213:559–61.

Rahman MJ, Sarkar P, Roy SK, Ahmad SM, Chisti J, Azim T, Matthan M, Sack D, Andersson J, Raqib R: Effects of zinc supplementation as adjunct therapy on the systemic immune responses in shigellosis. Am J ClinNutr 2005;81:495–502

Rall LC, Meydani SN: Vitamin B6 and immune competence. Nutr Rev 1993; 51: 217-25.

Ramasethu J. Semba RD. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994;343:1593-7.

Raqib R, Roy SK, Rahman MJ, Azim T, Ameers S, Christi J, Andersson J: Effect of zinc supplementation on immune and inflammatory responses in pediatric patients with shigellosis. Am J ClinNutr 2004;79:444–450.

Ravaglia G, Forti P, Maioli F, Bastagli L, Facchini A, Mariani E, Savarino L, SassiS, Cucinotta D, Lenaz G. Effect of micronutrient status on natural killer cell immune function in healthy free-living subjects aged 90 years. Am J ClinNutr2000;71, 590–598.

Rook G. Vitamin D and tuberculosis. Tubercle 1986;67:155–6

Rook GA, Steele J, Fraher L, Barker S, Karmali R, O’Riordan J, Stanford J. Vitamin D3, gamma interferon, and control of proliferation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human monocytes. Immunology 1986;57:159–63

Roy M, Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Wishe HI, Cohen MW, Stotzky G. Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions.I. Effect on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 receptor expression. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994;41:103-114.

Sabetta JR, DePetrillo P, Cipriani RJ, Smardin J, Burns LA, Landry ML. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS One 2010;5: e11088.

Sasazuki S, Sasaki S, Tsubono Y, et al: The effect of 5-year vitamin C supplementation on serum pepsinogen level and Helicobacter pylori infection. Cancer Sci 2003; 94: 378 – 382

Sazawal S, Black R, Bhan MK, Bhandari N, Sinha A, Jalla S: Zinc supplementation in young children with acute diarrhea in India. N Engl J Med 1995;333:839–844

Schaible UE, Kaufmann SHE. Iron and microbial infection. Nature Rev Microbiology 2004;2, 946–953.

Schwartz J, Weiss ST: Relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and pulmonary function in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Am J ClinNutr 1994; 59: 110 – 114.

Semba RD. Vitamin A and human immunodeficiency virus infection.Nutr Soc. 1997;56:459-469

Shankar AH, Prasad AS: Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J ClinNutr 1998; 68(2 Suppl): 447S-463S.

Smith AD, Botero S, Levander OA. Copper deficiency increases the virulence of amyocarditic and myocarditic strains of coxsackievirus B3 in mice. J Nutr. 2008;138:849-55

Sommer A, Katz J & Tarwotjo I. Increased risk of respiratory disease and diarrhea in children with preexisting mild vitamin A deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40, 1090–1095

Spallholz JE, Boylan LM, Larsen HS: Advances in understanding selenium’s role in the immune system. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990; 587: 123-39.

Stabler SP, LindenbaumJ, Allen RH: VitaminB12 deficiency in the elderly: current dilemmas. Am J ClinNutr 1977; 66, 741–749.

Stephensen CB: Vitamin A, infection, and immune function. Annu Rev Nutr 2001; 21: 167-92.

Stover PJ.Physiology of folate and vitamin B12 in health and disease.Nutr Rev. 2004;62:S3–12.

Ströhle A, Hahn A: Vitamin C and immune function. Med Monatsschr Pharm 2009; 32: 49 – 54.

Sukalski KA, LaBerge TP, Johnson WT. In vivo oxidative modification of erythrocyte membrane proteins in copper deficiency. Free RadicBiol Med. 1997;22:835–42.

Sunder-Plassmann G, Patruta SI, Hörl WH. Pathobiology of the role of iron in infection. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999;34:S25-9.

Takagi H, Nagamine T, Abe T, Takayama H, Sato K, Otsuka T, Kakizaki S, Hashimoto Y, Matsumoto T, Kojima A, Takezawa J, Suzuki K, Sato S, Mori M: Zinc supplementation enhances the response to interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat 2001;8:367–371.

Talbott MC, Miller LT, Kerkvliet NI. Pyridoxine supplementation: effect on lymphocyte responses in elderly persons. Am J ClinNutr. 1987;46:659-664.

The EURODIAB substudy 2 study group.Vitamin D supplement in early childhood and risk for type I (insulindependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia1999; 42, 51–54.

Thomas WR, Holt PG: Vitamin C and immunity: an assessment of the evidence. ClinExpImmunol 1978; 32: 370 – 379

Titaley CR, Dibley MJ, Roberts CL, Agho K. Combined iron/folic acid supplements and malaria prophylaxis reduce neonatal mortality in 19 sub-Saharan African countries. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:235-43.

Trakatellis A, Dimitriadou A, Trakatelli M: Pyridoxine deficiency: new approaches in immunosuppression and chemotherapy. Postgrad Med J 1997; 73: 617-22.

Troen AM, Mitchell B, Sorensen B, Wener MH, Johnston A, Wood B, Selhub J, McTiernanA, Yasui Y, Oral E, Potter JD, Ulrich CM. Unmetabolized folic acid in plasma is associated with reduced natural killer cell cytotoxicity among postmenopausal women. J Nutr 2006;136, 189–194.

Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J ClinNutr 2010;91: 1255–60.

Veldman CM,Cantorna MT & DeLuca HF. Expression of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in the immune system. Arch BiochemBiophys2000;374, 334–338.

Veverka DV, Wilson C, Martinez MA, Wenger R, Tamosuinas A: Use of zinc supplements to reduce upper respiratory infections in United States Air Force Academy Cadets. Comp Therapies in Clinical Practice 2009;15:91–95.

Villamor E, Fawzi WW. Effects of vitamin a supplementation on immune responses and correlation with clinical outcomes. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:446-64.

Villamor E, Fawzi WW. Vitamin A supplementation: implications for morbidity and mortality in children. J Infect Dis. 2000;182Suppl 1:S122-33.

Vogel RI, Lamster IB, Wechsler SA, Macedo B, Hartley LJ, Macedo JA. The effects of megadoses of ascorbic acid on PMN chemotaxis and experimental gingivitis.J Periodontol. 1986;57:472-479.

Walker CLF, Bhutta ZA, Bhandari N, Teka T, Shahid F, Taneja S, Black RE: Zinc during and in convalescence from diarrhea has no demonstrable effect on subsequent morbidity and anthropometic status among infants ,6 mo of age. Am J ClinNutr 2007;85:887–894

Wang C: Induced Susceptibility of Host Is Associated with an Impaired Antioxidant System Following Infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in Se-Deficient Mice. PLoS ONE 2009; 4(2): e4628

Wang X, Willén R, Wadström T: Astaxanthinrich algal meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44: 2452 – 2457

Webb AL, Villamor E: Update: Effects of antioxidant and non-antioxidant vitamin supplementation on immune function. NutrRev 2007; 65:181-217.

Weglicki WB & Phillips TM: Pathobiology of magnesium deficiency: a cytokine/neurogenic inflammation hypothesis. Am J Physiol. 1992;263, R734–R737.

Weiss G. Iron and immunity: a double-edged sword. Eur J Clin Invest 2002; 32, Suppl 1: 70–78.

Wejse C, Gomes VF, Rabna P, Gustafson P, Aaby P, Lisse IM, Andersen PL, Glerup H, Sodemann M. Vitamin D as supplementary treatment for tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J RespirCrit Care Med 2009;179:843–50.

Wintergerst ES, Maggini S &Hornig DH: Immuneenhancing role of vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions. Ann Nutr Met 2006; 50, 85–94.

Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH: Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function. Ann NutrMetab 2007; 51:301-323.

Wiysonge CS, Shey MS, Sterne JA, Brocklehurst P. Vitamin A supplementation for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005:CD003648.

Pharmabrain Logo

European Union Trademark no. 006894216
US Patent and Trademark Office reg. no. 3,705,613
International Registration 1460744
All rights reserved.

Wir sind Pharmabrain.

Pharmabrain GmbH – Wir trainieren Ihren Erfolg
Gesundheitskommunikation, Teamentwicklung, Projektmanagement

Kontakt

Pharmabrain GmbH
Telefon: +49-30-28091515
E-Mail: support@pharmabrain.org

Research and Training Center

Schumannstr. 7b
D-10117 Berlin

Verwaltung

Schumannstr. 7a
D-10117 Berlin