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Literatur und weiterführende Links (EXPERT 16-18)

1. Grundlagen Diabetes mellitus: Definition, Ätiologie und Klassifikation

1.1 Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Therapie des Typ-2-Diabetes – Langfassung, 1. Auflage. Version 4. 2013, zuletzt geändert: November 2014.

1.2 Kerner W, Brückel J. Definition, Klassifikation und Diagnostikdes Diabetes mellitus. Diabetologie 2015; 10 (Suppl 2): S98–S101

1.3 Samann A, Tajiyeva O, Muller N et al. Prevalence of the diabetic foot syndrome at the primary care level in Germany: a cross-sectional study. Diabet Med 2008; 25: 557–563

1.4 Blum M, Kloos C, Muller N et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. Check-up program of a public health insurance company in Germany 2002–2004. Ophthalmologe 2007; 104: 499–504

1.5 American Diabetes Association (ADA). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2006; 29 (Suppl 1): S43–S48

1.6 Kleinwächter H et al. Gestationsdiabetes mellitus (GDM) – Diagnostik, Therapie und Nachsorge. Diabetologie 2011; 6 (Suppl. 2): S180–S190

1.7 Hummel M. Sekundäre Diabetesformen/Typ-3-Diabetes. Diabetologie 2010; 5: R47–R64

1.8 Hawa MI, Kolb H, Schloot N et al. Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes in Europe is prevalent with a broad clinical phenotype: Action LADA 7. Diabetes Care 2013; 36: 908–913.

1.9 Benhalima K, Devlieger R, Van Assche A. Screening and management of gestational diabetes. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;29:339-49.

1.10 Meissner T, Marquard J, Schober E. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Diabetologe 2010; 6: 219–230.

1.11 Ewald N, Kaufmann C, Raspe A, Kloer HU, Bretzel RG, Hardt PD. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus secondary to pancreatic diseases (type 3c). Diabetes Metab Res  Rev. 2012;28:338-42.

1.12 Thomas CC, Philipson LH. Update on diabetes classification. Med Clin North Am.2015;99:1-16.

1.13 Kerner W, Fuchs C, Redaélli M et al. Definition, Klassifikation und Diagnostik des Diabetes mellitus. In: Scherbaum WA, Lauterbach KW, Joost HG, Hrsg. Evidenzbasierte Diabetes-Leitlinien DDG. Deutsche Diabetes-Gesellschaft; 2001. Aktualisierung 10/2004 durch Kerner W, Brückel J, Böhm BO

2. Physiologie des Glukosestoffwechsels

2.1 Stumvoll M, Chintalapudi U, Perriello G, et al. Uptake and release of glucose by the human kidney. J Clin Invest. 1995;96:2528-2533.

2.2 Boden G. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in health and diabetes. J Investig Med. 2004;52:375-378.

2.3 Clark DD, Sokoloff L. Circulation and energy metabolism of the brain. In: Siegel G, Agranoff B, Albers RW, Molinoff P, eds. Basic Neurochemistry:Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. 5th ed. New York, NY:Raven Press; 1994:645-680.

2.4 Raju B, Cryer PE. Loss of the decrement in intraislet insulin plausibly explains loss of the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in insulindeficient diabetes. Diabetes. 2005;54:757-764.

2.5 Berk MA, Clutter WE, Skor D, et al. Enhanced glycemic responsiveness to epinephrine in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is the result of the inability to secrete insulin. J Clin Invest. 1985;75:1842-1851.

2.6 Weiss MA. Proinsulin and the genetics of diabetes mellitus. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19159-63.

2.7 Bhatt MP, Lim YC, Ha KS. C-peptide replacement therapy as an emerging strategy for preventing diabetic vasculopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;104:234-44.

2.8 Ward W, Beard JC, Halter JB, et al: Pathophysiology of insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1984; 7:491-502

2.9 Chen M, and Porte DJ: The effect of rate and dose of glucose infusion on the acute insulin response in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976; 42:1168-1175

2.10 Porte DJ, and Pupo A: Insulin responses to glucose: evidence for a two-pooled system in man. J Clin Invest 1969; 48: 2309-2319

2.11Nauck M, Homberger E, Siegel EG, et al: Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986; 63: 492-498

2.12 Eaton R, Allen R, and Schade D: Hepatic removal of insulin in normal man: dose response to endogenous insulin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 56: 1294-1300

2.13 Waldhäus W, Bratusch-Marrain P, Gasic S, et al: Insulin production rate following glucose ingestion estimated by splanchnic C-peptide output in normal man. Diabetologia 1979; 17: 221-227

2.14 Madsbad S, Kehlet H, Hilsted J, et al: Discrepancy between plasma C-peptide and insulin response to oral and intravenous glucose. Diabetes 1983; 32: 436-438

2.15 Faber O, Madsbad S, Kehlet H, et al: Pancreatic beta cell secretion during oral and intravenous glucose administration. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1979; 624: 61-64

2.16 Shapiro E, Tillil H, Miller MA, et al: Insulin secretion and clearance: comparison after oral and intravenous glucose. Diabetes 1987; 93: 1120-1130

2.17 Weir G, Mojsovs S, Hendrick GK, et al: Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37) actions on endocrine pancreas. Diabetes 1989; 38: 338-342

2.18 Zawalich W, and Diaz V: Prior cholecystokinin exposure sensitizes islets of Langerhans to glucose stimulation. Diabetes 1987; 36: 118-227

2.19 Schmidt W, Siegel E, and Creutzfeldt W: Glucagon-like peptide-2 stimulates insulin release from isolated rate pancreatic islets. Diabetologia 1985; 28: 704-707

2.20 Andersen D, Elahi D, Brown JC, et al: Oral glucose augmentation of insulin secretion: interactions of gastric inhibitory polypeptide with ambient glucose and insulin levels. J Clin Invest 1978; 62: 152-161

2.21 Dupre J, Ross SA, Watson D, et al: Stimulation of insulin secretion by gastric inhibitory polypeptide in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1973; 37: 826-828

2.22 Levin S, Karam JH, Hane S, et al. Enhancement of arginine-induced insulin secretion in man by prior administration of glucose. Diabetes. 1971;20:171-176

2.23 Samols E, Marri G, Marks V. Promotion of insulin secretion by glucagon. Lancet. 1965;2:15-16.

2.24 Gustafson A, Banasiak MF, Kalkhoff RK, et al. Correlation of hyperprolactinemia with altered plasma insulin and glucagon: similarity to effects of late human pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980;51: 242-246.

2.25 Kalhan S, Adam P. Inhibitory effect of prednisone on insulin secretion in man: model for duplication of blood glucose concentration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975;41:600-610

2.26 Woods S, Porte DJ. Neural control of the endocrine pancreas. Physiol Rev. 1974;54:596-619.

2.27 Kurose T, Seino Y, Nishi S, et al. Mechanism of sympathetic neural regulation of insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon secretion. Am J Physiol. 1990;251:E220-E227.

2.28 Nishi S, Seino Y, Ishida H, et al. Vagal regulation of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion in vitro in the rat. J Clin Invest. 1987;79:1191-1196.

3. Diabetes mellitus: Pathophysiologie und Pathogenese

3.1 Barnett AH, Eff C, Leslie RD et al. Diabetes in identical twins. A study of 200 pairs. Diabetologia 1981; 20: 87–93

3.2 Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature 2006;444:840-6

3.3 Nauck M, Stöckmann F, Ebert R et al. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 (non-insulindependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 1986; 29: 46–52

3.4 Butler AE, Janson J, Bonner-Weir S et al. Beta-cell deficit and increased beta-cell apoptosis in humans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2003; 52: 102–110

3.5 Meier JJ. Beta cell mass in diabetes: a realistic therapeutic target? Diabetologia 2008; 51: 703–713

3.6 Zimmet P, Alberti KG MM, Serrano Rios M. [A new international diabetes federation worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome: the rationale and the results]. Rev Esp Cardiol 2005;58:1371-6

3.7 U.K. prospective diabetes study 16. Overview of 6 years’ therapy of type II diabetes: a progressive disease. U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Diabetes 1995;44:1249-58

3.8  Robertson RP, Harmon J, Tran PO et al. Betacell glucose toxicity, lipotoxicity, and chronic oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004; 53: S119–124

3.9 Haataja L, Gurlo T, Huang CJ et al. Islet amyloid in type 2 diabetes, and the toxic oligomer hypothesis. Endocr Rev 2008; 29: 303–316

3.10 Chakraborti CK. Role of adiponectin and some other factors linking type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. World J Diabetes. 2015;6:1296-308.

4. Epidemiologie

4.1 Hien, Peter (2013): Diabetes-Handbuch.; [nach den Leitlinien der Deutschen Diabetes-Gesellschaft (DDG)]. 7., vollst. überarb. und aktualisierte Aufl. Berlin: Springer.2013, S18

4.2 Kurth BM. Erste Ergebnisse aus der „Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland” (DEGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2012;55:980-90.

4.3 Rathmann W, Scheidt-Nave C, Roden M, Herder C. Type 2 diabetes: prevalence and relevance of genetic and acquired factors for its prediction. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2013;110:331-7

4.4 Schulze B, Rathmann W, Giani G et al. Verlässliche Schätzungen stehen noch aus. Dtsch Ärztebl 2010; 36: 1694–1696

4.5 Hauner H. Diabetesepidemie und Dunkelziffer. In: diabetesDE. Deutscher Gesundheitsbericht Diabetes 2011. Mainz: Kirchheim; 2011: 8–13

4.6 Deutsche Diabetes-Stiftung. Diabetes in Deutschland – Fakten und Zahlen. München: Edition Lipp; 2010

4.7 Kurth BM. Erste Ergebnisse aus der „Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland” (DEGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2012; 55: 980–990

4.8 Rathmann W, Scheidt-Nave C, Roden M et al. Type 2 diabetes: prevalence and relevance of genetic and acquired factors for its prediction. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2013; 110: 331–337.

5. Diagnose und klinische Untersuchungen

5.1 Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV), Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Therapie des Typ-2-Diabetes – Langfassung, 1. Auflage. Version 4. 2013, zuletzt geändert: November 2014.

 

6. Allgemeine Therapieprinzipien

6.1 Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:393.

6.2 Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, et al. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:1577.

6.3 ADVANCE Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:2560.

6.4 Look AHEAD Research Group, Wing RR, Bolin P, et al. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:145.

6.5 American Diabetes Association (ADA). Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2012. Diabetes Care 2012;35 Suppl 1:S11-S63

6.6 Boule NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA 2001;286(10):1218-27

6.7 Wing RR, Bolin P, Brancati FL, et al. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2013;369(2):145-54

6.8 Snowling NJ, Hopkins WG. Effects of different modes of exercise training on glucose control and risk factors for complications in type 2 diabetic patients: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2006;29:2518-27

6.9 Kemmer FW, Halle M, Stumvoll M, Thurm U, Zimmer P. Diabetes, Sport und Bewegung. Praxisleitlinie der Deutschen Diabetes-Gesellschaft. Diabet Stoffw 2009;4:S113-200

6.10 Hollmann W, Strüder HK, Tagarakis CV. Körperliche Aktivität, Gehirngesundheit und -leistungsfähigkeit. Nervenheilkunde 2003;22:467-74.

6.11 Willi C, Bodenmann P, Ghali WA, Faris PD, Cornuz J. Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2007;298:2654-64

6.12 Peto R, Darby S, Deo H, Silcocks P, Whitley E, Doll R. Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies. BMJ 2000;321:323-9

6.13 UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS). VIII. Study design, progress and performance. Diabetologia 1991;34:877-90

6.14 Geter Gaede et al. Effect of a Multifactorial Intervention on Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:580-91

6.15 Wing RR, Blair EH, Bononi P, et al. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994; 17:30.

6.16 Henry RR, Scheaffer L, Olefsky JM. Glycemic effects of intensive caloric restriction and isocaloric refeeding in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985; 61:917.

 

2. Pharmakologische Therapie des Typ 2-Diabetes

7. Wirkprinzipien und Einteilung der oralen Antidiabetika und Inkretinanaloga

8. Biguanide: Metformin

8.1 McIntyre HD, Ma A, Bird DM, et al. Metformin increases insulin sensitivity and basal glucose clearance in type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. Aust N Z J Med 1991; 21:714.

8.2 Stumvoll M, Nurjhan N, Perriello G, et al. Metabolic effects of metformin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:550.

8.3 Glueck CJ, Fontaine RN, Wang P, et al. Metformin reduces weight, centripetal obesity, insulin, leptin, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in nondiabetic, morbidly obese subjects with body mass index greater than 30. Metabolism 2001; 50:856.

8.4 Madiraju AK, Erion DM, Rahimi Y, et al. Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Nature 2014; 510:542.

8.5 Salpeter SR, Buckley NS, Kahn JA, Salpeter EE. Meta-analysis: metformin treatment in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 2008; 121:149.

8.6 Bailey CJ, Turner RC. Metformin. N Engl J Med 1996; 334:574.

8.7 Ting RZ, Szeto CC, Chan MH, et al. Risk factors of vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients receiving metformin. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166:1975.

8.8 Bell DS. Metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as a peripheral neuropathy. South Med J 2010; 103:265.

8.9 de Jager J, Kooy A, Lehert P, et al. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency: randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2010; 340:c2181.

8.10  Salpeter SR, Greyber E, Pasternak GA, Salpeter EE. Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; :CD002967.

8.11 Misbin RI. The phantom of lactic acidosis due to metformin in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:1791.

8.12 Sirtori CR, Pasik C. Re-evaluation of a biguanide, metformin: mechanism of action and tolerability. Pharmacol Res 1994; 30:187.

8.13  Lalau JD. Lactic acidosis induced by metformin: incidence, management and prevention. Drug Saf 2010; 33:727.

8.14 Khurana R, Malik IS. Metformin: safety in cardiac patients. Heart 2010; 96:99.

8.15  Lalau JD, Arnouts P, Sharif A, De Broe ME. Metformin and other antidiabetic agents in renal failure patients. Kidney Int 2015; 87:308.

8.16 Lu WR, Defilippi J, Braun A. Unleash metformin: reconsideration of the contraindication in patients with renal impairment. Ann Pharmacother 2013; 47:1488.

8.17 Goergen SK, Rumbold G, Compton G, Harris C. Systematic review of current guidelines, and their evidence base, on risk of lactic acidosis after administration of contrast medium for patients receiving metformin. Radiology 2010; 254:261.

9. Sulfonylharnstoffe

9.1 Bressler R, Johnson DG. Pharmacological regulation of blood glucose levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157:836.

9.2 Aguilar-Bryan L, Nichols CG, Wechsler SW, et al. Cloning of the beta cell high-affinity sulfonylurea receptor: a regulator of insulin secretion. Science 1995; 268:423.

9.3 Hermann LS, Scherstén B, Bitzén PO, et al. Therapeutic comparison of metformin and sulfonylurea, alone and in various combinations. A double-blind controlled study. Diabetes Care 1994; 17:1100.

9.4 Rydberg T, Jönsson A, Røder M, Melander A. Hypoglycemic activity of glyburide (glibenclamide) metabolites in humans. Diabetes Care 1994; 17:1026.

9.5 Jönsson A, Rydberg T, Ekberg G, et al. Slow elimination of glyburide in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1994; 17:142

9.6 Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Individual sulfonylureas and serious hypoglycemia in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44:751.

9.7 Stenman S, Melander A, Groop PH, Groop LC. What is the benefit of increasing the sulfonylurea dose? Ann Intern Med 1993; 118:169.

9.8 Tessier D, Dawson K, Tétrault JP, et al. Glibenclamide vs gliclazide in type 2 diabetes of the elderly. Diabet Med 1994; 11:974.

9.9 Holstein A, Plaschke A, Egberts EH. Lower incidence of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with glimepiride versus glibenclamide. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2001; 17:467.

9.10 Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Incidence and risk factors for serious hypoglycemia in older persons using insulin or sulfonylureas. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157:1681.

10. Glinide

10.1 Fuhlendorff J, Rorsman P, Kofod H, et al. Stimulation of insulin release by repaglinide and glibenclamide involves both common and distinct processes. Diabetes 1998; 47:345.

10.2 Moses R, Slobodniuk R, Boyages S, et al. Effect of repaglinide addition to metformin monotherapy on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:119.

10.3 Hollander PA, Schwartz SL, Gatlin MR, et al. Importance of early insulin secretion: comparison of nateglinide and glyburide in previously diet-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001; 24:983.

10.4 Moses RG, Gomis R, Frandsen KB, et al. Flexible meal-related dosing with repaglinide facilitates glycemic control in therapy-naive type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001; 24:11.

10.5 Wolffenbuttel BH, Landgraf R. A 1-year multicenter randomized double-blind comparison of repaglinide and glyburide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Dutch and German Repaglinide Study Group. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:463.

11. α-Glukosidasehemmer

11.1 Meneilly GS, Ryan EA, Radziuk J, et al. Effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:1162.

11.2 Hoffmann J, Spengler M. Efficacy of 24-week monotherapy with acarbose, glibenclamide, or placebo in NIDDM patients. The Essen Study. Diabetes Care 1994; 17:561.

11.3 Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Hunt JA, et al. The efficacy of acarbose in the treatment of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A multicenter controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121:928.

11.4 Holman RR, Cull CA, Turner RC. A randomized double-blind trial of acarbose in type 2 diabetes shows improved glycemic control over 3 years (U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study 44). Diabetes Care 1999; 22:960.

11.5 Catalan VS, Couture JA, LeLorier J. Predictors of persistence of use of the novel antidiabetic agent acarbose. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:1106.

11.6 Carrascosa M, Pascual F, Aresti S. Acarbose-induced acute severe hepatotoxicity. Lancet 1997; 349:698.

12. Glitazone (Thiazolidindione)

12.1 Yki-Järvinen H. Thiazolidinediones. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:1106.

12.2 Vidal-Puig AJ, Considine RV, Jimenez-Liñan M, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene expression in human tissues. Effects of obesity, weight loss, and regulation by insulin and glucocorticoids. J Clin Invest 1997; 99:2416.

12.3 Hanefeld M. Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of pioglitazone. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2001;:19-25.

12.4 Basu A, Jensen MD, McCann F, et al. Effects of pioglitazone versus glipizide on body fat distribution, body water content, and hemodynamics in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006; 29:510.

12.5  Kaul S, Bolger AF, Herrington D, et al. Thiazolidinedione drugs and cardiovascular risks: a science advisory from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation 2010; 121:1868.

12.6 Bloomgarden ZT. The Avandia debate. Diabetes Care 2007; 30:2401.

12.7 Maeda K. Hepatocellular injury in a patient receiving pioglitazone. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135:306.

12.8 Yaturu S, Bryant B, Jain SK. Thiazolidinedione treatment decreases bone mineral density in type 2 diabetic men. Diabetes Care 2007; 30:1574.

12.9 Grey A. Skeletal consequences of thiazolidinedione therapy. Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:129.

13. GLP-1-Mimetika (GLP-1-Rezeptoragonisten)

13.1 Lee YS, Jun HS. Anti-diabetic actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 on pancreatic beta-cells. Metabolism 2014; 63:9.

13.2 Giorda CB, Nada E, Tartaglino B. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal or hepatic impairment. A systematic review of the literature. Endocrine 2014; 46:406.

13.3 St Onge EL, Miller SA. Albiglutide: a new GLP-1 analog for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010;10:801-6.

13.4 http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/002735/WC500165117.pdf

13.5 Shyangdan DS, Royle P, Clar C, et al. Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; :CD006423.

13.6 Dore DD, Bloomgren GL, Wenten M, et al. A cohort study of acute pancreatitis in relation to exenatide use. Diabetes Obes Metab 2011; 13:559.

13.7 Romley JA, Goldman DP, Solomon M, et al. Exenatide therapy and the risk of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in a privately insured population. Diabetes Technol Ther 2012; 14:904.

13.8 Garg R, Chen W, Pendergrass M. Acute pancreatitis in type 2 diabetes treated with exenatide or sitagliptin: a retrospective observational pharmacy claims analysis. Diabetes Care 2010; 33:2349.

14. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4-(DPP-4-)Inhibitoren

14.1 Demuth HU, McIntosh CH, Pederson RA. Type 2 diabetes–therapy with dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005; 1751:33.

14.2 Rosenstock J, Sankoh S, List JF. Glucose-lowering activity of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor saxagliptin in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008; 10:376.

14.3 http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000771/WC500020327.pdf

 

15. Natrium-Glukose-Cotransporter-2-(SGLT2)-Inhibitoren

15.1 Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft (AkdÄ). Forxiga® (Dapagliflozin). Neue Arzneimittel. Information der Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft (AkdÄ); 2013. http://www.akdae.de/Arzneimitteltherapie/NA/Archiv/201302-Forxiga.pdf

15.2 Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft (AkdÄ). Invokana® (Canagliflozin) Neue Arzneimittel. Information der Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft (AkdÄ); 2014. http://www.akdae.de/Arzneimitteltherapie/NA/Archiv-SN/201409-Invokana.pdf

16. Pharmakologische Aspekte der Insulintherapie

16.1 Sorli C. New developments in insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes. Am J Med. 2014;127:S39-48.

16.2 Philis-Tsimikas A, Charpentier G, Clauson P, et al. Comparison of once-daily insulin detemir with NPH insulin added to a regimen of oral antidiabetic drugs in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Clin Ther 2006; 28:1569.

16.3 Jensen MG, Hansen M, Brock B, Rungby J. Differences between long-acting insulins fort the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Exp Opin Pharmacother. 2010;11:2027–35.

16.4 Horvath K, Jeitler K, Berghold A, Ebrahim SH, Gratzer TW, Plank J, Kaiser T, Pieber TR, Siebenhofer A. Long-acting insulin analogies versus NPH-insulin (human isophane insulin) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;18:CD005613.

16.5 Plank J, Siebenhofer A, Berghold A, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of short-acting insulin analogues in patients with diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1337–44.

16.6 Yki-Järvinen H, Kauppinen-Mäkelin R, Tiikkainen M, et al. Insulin glargine or NPH combined with metformin in type 2 diabetes: the LANMET study. Diabetologia 2006; 49:442.

16.7  Yki-Järvinen H, Dressler A, Ziemen M, HOE 901/300s Study Group. Less nocturnal hypoglycemia and better post-dinner glucose control with bedtime insulin glargine compared with bedtime NPH insulin during insulin combination therapy in type 2 diabetes. HOE 901/3002 Study Group. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:1130.

16.8  Oyer D, Niemeyer M, Moses A. Empowering people with diabetes: improving perceptions and outcomes with technical advances in insulin pens. Postgrad Med.2012;124:110-20.

16.9  Rosenstock J, Schwartz SL, Clark CM Jr, et al. Basal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: 28-week comparison of insulin glargine (HOE 901) and NPH insulin. Diabetes Care 2001; 24:631.

16.10 Donnelly LA, Morris AD, Frier BM, et al. Frequency and predictors of hypoglycaemia in Type 1 and insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Diabet Med 2005; 22:749.

16.11 Raz I, Wilson PW, Strojek K, et al. Effects of prandial versus fasting glycemia on cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: the HEART2D trial. Diabetes Care 2009; 32:381.

16.12 Pontiroli AE, Miele L, Morabito A. Increase of body weight during the first year of intensive insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 2011; 13:1008.

16.13  Wang F, Carabino JM, Vergara CM. Insulin glargine: a systematic review of a long-acting insulin analogue. Clin Ther. 2003;25:1541-77,

16.14 Hollander P, Cooper J, Bregnhoj J, Pedersen CB. A 52-week, multinational, open-label, parallel-group, noninferiority, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with insulin glargine in a basal-bolus regimen with mealtime insulin aspart in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Ther. 2008;30:1976–87

16.15  Vora J, Christensen T, Rana A, Bain SC. Insulin degludec versus insulin glargine in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of endpoints in  phase 3a trials. Diabetes Ther. 2014;5:435-46.

16.16 Haahr H, Heise T. A review of the pharmacological properties of insulin deglutec and their clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2014;53:787–800.

16.17 Li X, Du T, Li W, Zhang T, Liu H, Xiong Y. Efficacy and safety of weight-based insulin glargine dose titration regimen compared with glucose level- and current dose-based regimens in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled study. Clin Ther. 2014;36:1269–75.

16.18 Swinnen SG, Dain MP, Aronson R, Davies M, Gerstein HC, Pfeiffer AF, et al. A 24-week, randomized, treat-to-target trial comparing initiation of insulin glargine once-daily with insulin detemir twice-daily in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on oral glucose-lowering drugs. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1176–8

16.19 Yki-Järvinen H, Bergenstal R, Ziemen M, et al. New insulin Glargine 300 Units/mL versus Glargine 100 Units/mL in people with type 2 diabetes using oral agents and basal insulin: glucose controls and hypoglycemia in a 6-month randomized controlled trial (EDITION 2). Diabetes Care. 2014;37:3235–43

16.20 Riddle MC, Bolli GB, Ziemen M, et al. New insulin Glargin 300 Units/mL versus Glargine 100 Units/mL in people with type 2 diabetes using basal and mealtime insulin: glucose controls and hypoglycemia in a 6-months randomized controlled trial (EDITION 1). Diabetes Care. 2014;37:2755–62

 

3. Klinische Aspekte des Typ 2-Diabetes

17. Stufentherapie des Typ-2-Diabetes mellitus

17.1 Ismail-Beigi F, Moghissi E, Tiktin M, Hirsch IB, Inzucchi SE, Genuth S. Individualizing glycemic targets in type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications of recent clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:554-9.

17.2 Wallia A, Molitch ME. Insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2014; 311:2315

17.3 American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes–2014. Diabetes Care 2014; 37 Suppl 1:S14.

18. Klinische Aspekte der Insulintherapie beim Typ-2-Diabetiker

18.1 American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes–2014. Diabetes Care 2014; 37 Suppl 1:S14.

18.2 Wallia A, Molitch ME. Insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2014; 311:2315.

18.3 Kleinwechter H, Schäfer-Graf U, Bührer C et al. Gestationsdiabetes mellitus (GDM). Diabetologie 2011; 6: 290–328

18.4 Puhakainen I, Taskinen MR, Yki-Järvinen H. Comparison of acute daytime and nocturnal insulinization on diurnal glucose homeostasis in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994; 17:805.

18.5 Yki-Järvinen H, Kauppila M, Kujansuu E, et al. Comparison of insulin regimens in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1992; 327:1426.

18.6 Henry RR, Gumbiner B, Ditzler T, et al. Intensive conventional insulin therapy for type II diabetes. Metabolic effects during a 6-mo outpatient trial. Diabetes Care 1993; 16:21.

18.7 Taylor R, Davies R, Fox C, et al. Appropriate insulin regimes for type 2 diabetes: a multicenter randomized crossover study. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:1612.

18.8 Bergenstal RM, Johnson M, Powers MA, et al. Adjust to target in type 2 diabetes: comparison of a simple algorithm with carbohydrate counting for adjustment of mealtime insulin glulisine. Diabetes Care 2008; 31:1305.

18.9 Häring H-U, Gallwitz B, Müller-Wieland D, Usadel K-H, Mehnert H. Diabetologie in Klinik und Praxis. 6. Aufl. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2011

18.10 Matthaei S et al. Behandlung des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2. Diabetologie 2011; 6: S131-S136

19. Diabetes und Schwangerschaft

19.1 Deutsche Diabetes-Gesellschaft (DDG) und Deutsche Gesellschaft für Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe (DGGG). Gestationsdiabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidenzbasierte Leitlinie zu Diagnostik, Therapie und Nachsorge. 8/2011. www.deutsche-diabetes-gesellschaft.de

19.2 AQUA-Institut für angewandte Qualitätsförderung und Forschung im Gesundheitswesen GmbH. Bundesauswertung zum Erfassungsjahr 2013. 16/1 – Geburtshilfe Qualitätsindikatoren. www.sqg.de

19.3 Bauer K, Vetter K, Groneck P, Herting E, Gonser M, Hackelöer BJ, Harms E, Rossi R, Hof-mann U, Trieschmann U. Empfehlungen für die strukturellen Voraussetzungen der perinatologischen Versorgung in Deutschland. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2006;210:19-24.

19.4 American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes–2011. Diabetes Care 2011; 34 (1): 11–61

20. Diabetische Folgeerkrankungen

20.1 Kannel WB, McGee DL. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The Framingham study. JAMA 1979; 241:2035–2038

20.2 Nathan DM, Bayless M, Cleary P, Genuth S, Gubitosi-Klug R, Lechin JM, Lorenzi G, Zinman B, DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Diabetes controls and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes intervention and complications study at 30 years: advances and contributions. Diabetes. 2013;62:3976–86.

20.3 UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS Group). Intensive blood glucose control with sulfonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352:837–52.

20.4 Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel A, Matthews DR, Neil AW. 10-year follow up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1577–89.

21. Diabetische Makroangiopathie

21.1 Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:129–39.

21.2 Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet 1998; 352:837.

22. Diabetische Mikroangiopathie

22.1 Hammes H, Lemmen K, Bertram B. Diabetische Retinopathie und Makulopathie. Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel 2010; 5: 117–121

22.2 Cheung N, Wong TY. Diabetic retinopathy and systemic vascular complications. Prog Retin Eye Res 2008; 27: 161–176

22.3 Nentwich MM, Lemmen KD, Ulbig MW. Stadieneinteilung und Therapie der diabetischen Retinopathie und Makulopathie. Erläuterungen zur Broschüre der Initiativgruppe „Früherkennung diabetischer Augenerkrankungen“. Z prakt Augenheilkd 2010; 31: 491-499

22.4 Early worsening of diabetic retinopathy in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:874-86.

22.5 Klein R, Lee KE, Knudtson MD et al. Changes in visual impairment prevalence by period of diagnosis of diabetes: the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmology 2009; 116: 1937–1942

22.6 Adler AI, Stevens RJ, Manley SE, et al. Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64). Kidney international. 2003;63:225–232.

22.7 ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560–72.

22.8 Macisaac RJ, Ekinci EI, Jerums G. Markers of and risk factors for the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease. American journal of kidney diseases. 2014;63:S39–S62.

22.9 Fioretto P, Mauer M, Brocco E, et al. Patterns of renal injury in NIDDM patients with microalbuminuria. Diabetologia. 1996;39:1569–1576.

22.10 Tuttle KR, Bakris GL, Bilous RW, et al. Diabetic kidney disease: a report from an ADA Consensus Conference. American journal of kidney diseases. 2014;64:510–533

22.11 Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Lancet. 2000;355:253–259.

23. Diabetische Neuropathie

23.1 Abbott CA, Malik RA, van Ross ER, Kulkarni J, Boultin AJ. Prevalence and characteristics of painful diabetic neuropathy in a large community-based diabetic population in the U.K. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:2220–4.

23.2 Tavee J, Zhou L. Small fiber neuropathy: A burning problem. Cleve Clin J Med 2009; 76: 297–305

23.3 Ziegler D, Rathmann W, Dickhaus T et al. Prevalence of polyneuropathy in pre-diabetes and diabetes is associated with abdominal obesity and macroangiopathy: the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Surveys S2 and S3. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 464–469

23.4 Callaghan BC, Cheng HAT, Stables CL, Smith AL, Feldman EL. Diabetic neuropathy: clinical manifestations and current treatment. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11:521–34.

23.5 Bril V, England JD, Franklin GM, Backonja M, Cohen JA, Del Toro DR, Feldman EL, Iverson DJ, Perkins B, Russell JW, Zochodne DW. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy – report of the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, the American Academy of Neurology, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Muscle Nerve. 2011;43:910–17.

23.6 Vinik AI, Ziegler D. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Circulation 2007(115):387–397

23.7 Vinik AI, Maser RE, Mitchell BD, Freema R. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1553–79.

24. Diabetisches Fuβsyndrom

24.1 American Diabetes Association. Microvascular compliations and foot care. Diabetes Care 2015;38 Suppl 1:S58–66.

24.2 Jude EB, Oyibo SO, Chalmers N, Boulton AJ. Peripheral arterial disease in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: a comparison of severity and outcome. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1433-7.

24.3 Singh N, Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2005;293:217-28.

24.4 Valk GD, Kriegsman DM, Assendelft WJ. Patient education for prevention diabetic foot ulceration: a systematic review. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2002;31:633–58.

24.5 Bakker K, Apelqvist J, Schaper NC. Practical guidelines on the management and prevention of the diabetic foot 2011. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012;28 Suppl 1:225–31.

24.6 International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot. http://www.iwgdf.org/files/2015/website_summary.pdf adressed. Zugegriffen: 9. April 2016.

24.7 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Wundheilung und Wundbehandlung e.V. (Hrsg.). S3-Leitlinie: Lokaltherapie chronischer  Wunden bei Patienten mit den Risiken periphere arterielle Verschlusskrankheit, Diabetes mellitus, chronische venöse Insuffizienz. Stand: 12.06.2012 Version 12012 20.07.2012:[1-287 pp.].

25. Diabetisches Koma

25.1 Gosmanov AR, Wall BM. Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Bope ET, Kellerman RD, editors. Conn’s Current Therapy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014. 2014. pp. 710–713.

25.2 Kitabchi AE, Murphy MB, Spencer J, Matteri R, Karas J. Is a priming dose of insulin necessary in a low-dose insulin protocol for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2081-5.

25.3 Kitabchi AE, Nyenwe EA. Hyperglycemic crises in diabetes mellitus: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2006;35:725-51

25.4 Randall L, Begovic J, Hudson M, Smiley D, Peng L, Pitre N, Umpierrez D, Umpierrez G. Recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis in inner-city minority patients: behavioral, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:1891-6.

26. Diabetes und Krebserkrankungen

26.1 Giovannucci  E,  Harlan  DM,  Archer  MC,  et   al:  Diabetes  and  cancer: a consensus report. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 1674-1685, 2010

26.2 Sun  G  and  Kashyap  SR:  Cancer  risk  in  type  2  diabetes   mellitus: metabolic links and therapeutic considerations. J Nutr Metab 2011: 708183

26.3 Garg  SK,  Maurer  H,  Reed  K  and  Selagamsetty  R:  Diabetes  and cancer: two diseases with obesity as a common risk factor. Diabetes Obes Metab 2014; 16: 97-110.

26.4 Chowdhury TA: Diabetes and cancer. QJM 2010; 103: 905-915.

26.5 Handelsman Y, Leroith D, Bloomgarden ZT, et al: Diabetes and cancer – an AACE/ACE consensus statement. Endocr Pract 2013; 19: 675-693

26.6 Vigneri P, Frasca F, Sciacca L, et al: Diabetes and cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 2009; 16: 1103-1123.

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