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Literatur und weiterführende Links (EXPERT 13-15)

Zusatzliteratur Grundlagen Antikoagulation

1. Physiologie der Blutgerinnung

1.1 Coller BS, Shattil SJ. The GPIIb/IIIa (integrin alphaIIbbeta3) odyssey: a technology-driven saga of a receptor with twists, turns, and even a bend. Blood 2008; 112:3011.

1.2 Shattil SJ, Newman PJ. Integrins: dynamic scaffolds for adhesion and signaling in platelets. Blood 2004; 104:1606.

1.3 Wagner DD. Cell biology of von Willebrand factor. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1990; 6:217.

1.4 Jackson SP. The growing complexity of platelet aggregation. Blood 2007; 109:5087.

1.5 Vu TK, Hung DT, Wheaton VI, Coughlin SR. Molecular cloning of a functional thrombin receptor reveals a novel proteolytic mechanism of receptor activation. Cell 1991; 64:1057.

1.6 Bennett JS, Vilaire G. Exposure of platelet fibrinogen receptors by ADP and epinephrine. J Clin Invest 1979; 64:1393.

1.7 Yang J, Wu J, Kowalska MA, et al. Loss of signaling through the G protein, Gz, results in abnormal platelet activation and altered responses to psychoactive drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97:9984

1.8 Ma AD, Abrams CS. Pleckstrin homology domains and phospholipid-induced cytoskeletal reorganization. Thromb Haemost 1999; 82:399

1.9 Cattaneo M. New P2Y(12) inhibitors. Circulation 2010; 121:171.

1.10 Kunapuli SP, Dorsam RT, Kim S, Quinton TM. Platelet purinergic receptors. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2003; 3:175.

1.11 Coppinger JA, O’Connor R, Wynne K, et al. Moderation of the platelet releasate response by aspirin. Blood 2007; 109:4786.

1.12 Li R, Mitra N, Gratkowski H, et al. Activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by modulation of transmembrane helix associations. Science 2003; 300:795.

1.13 Hoffman M, Monroe DM. Coagulation 2006: a modern view of hemostasis. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2007;21:1.

1.14 Cesarman-Maus G, Hajjar KA. Molecular mechanisms of fibrinolysis. Br J Haematol 2005; 129:307.

2. Thrombosebedingte Erkrankungen

2.1 Rijken DC, Lijnen HR. New insights into the molecular mechanisms of the fibrinolytic system. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7:4.

2.2 Davies MJ, Thomas A. Thrombosis and acute coronary-artery lesions in sudden cardiac ischemic death. N Engl J Med 1984; 310:1137.

2.3 Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, et al. Lessons from sudden coronary death: a comprehensive morphological classification scheme for atherosclerotic lesions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20:1262.

2.4 Furie B, Furie BC. Mechanisms of thrombus formation. N Engl J Med. 2008 28;359:938.

3. Grundkenntnisse venöse Thromboembolien

3.1 Goldhaber SZ. Pulmonary embolism thrombolysis: a clarion call for international collaboration. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 19:246–247

3.2 Heit JA. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in the community. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008; 28:370–372

3.3 Dickson BC. Venous thrombosis: on the history of Virchow’s triad. Univ Toronto Med J 2004; 81:166.

3.4 Spencer FA, Emery C, Lessard D, et al. The Worcester Venous Thromboembolism study: a population-based study of the clinical epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21:722.

3.5 Bertina RM. Genetic approach to thrombophilia. Thromb Haemost 2001; 86:92.

3.6 Pomp ER, Lenselink AM, Rosendaal FR, Doggen CJ. Pregnancy, the postpartum period and prothrombotic defects: risk of venous thrombosis in the MEGA study. J Thromb Haemost 2008; 6:632

3.7 Dahlback B. Inherited thrombophilia: resistance to activated protein C as a pathogenic factor of venous thromboembolism. Blood 1995; 85:607–614

3.8 Margaglione M, Brancaccio V, Giuliani N, et al. Increased risk for venous thrombosis in carriers of the prothrombin G–>A20210 gene variant. Ann Intern Med 1998; 129:89.

3.9 Dahlbäck B. Advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms of thrombophilic disorders. Blood 2008; 112:19.

3.10 Crowther MA, Kelton JG. Congenital thrombophilic states associated with venous thrombosis: a qualitative overview and proposed classification system. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138:128.

3.11 Qaseem A, Snow V, Barry P, et al. Current diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in primary care: a clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Family Physicians and the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146:454.

3.12 Goodacre S, Sutton AJ, Sampson FC. Meta-analysis: The value of clinical assessment in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143:129.

3.13 Goodacre S et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for deep vein thrombosis. BMC Med Imaging 2005; 5:6

3.14 Goodacre S, Stevenson M, Wailoo A, Sampson F, Sutton AJ, Thomas S. How should we diagnose suspected deep-vein thrombosis? QJM 2006;99:377–388.

3.15 Fancher TL, White RH, Kravitz RL. Combined use of rapid D-dimer testing and estimation of clinical probability in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis: systematic review. BMJ. 2004;329:821.

3.16 Scarvelis D, Wells PS. Diagnosis and treatment of deep-vein thrombosis. CMAJ. 2006;175:1087.

3.17 Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, Forgie M, Kearon C, Dreyer J, Kovacs G, Mitchell M, Lewandowski B, Kovacs MJ. Evaluation of D-dimer in the diagnosis of suspected deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1227

3.18 Wells PS, Owen C, Doucette S, Fergusson D, Tran H. Does this patient have deep vein thrombosis? JAMA. 2006;295:199.

3.19 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Angiologie — Gesellschaft für Gefäßmedizin. S2-Leitlinie: Diagnostik und Therapie der Venenthrombose und der Lungenembolie, Stand: 10.10.2015. http://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/065-002l_S2k_VTE_2016-01.pdf. Zugegriffen: 16.06.2015

3.20 Cohen AT, Agnelli G, Anderson FA, et al. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Europe. The number of VTE events and associated morbidity and mortality. Thromb Haemost 2007; 98:756–764

3.21 Pizarro C, Hammerstingl C, Schaefer C, Grohe C, Nickenig G, Skowasch D. Neue Therapieoptionen zur Behandlung der Lungenembolie: Studienlage und Stellenwert der direkten oralen Antikoagulation. Pneumologie 2015;69:99

3.22 Stein PD, Beemath A, Matta F, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients with acute pulmonary embolism: data from PIOPED II. Am J Med 2007; 120:871.

3.23 Goodacre S et al. Variation in the diagnostic performance of D-dimer for suspected deep vein thrombosis. QJM 2005; 98:513–527

3.24 Schouten HJ et al. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values in older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2013;346:f2492

3.25 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Angiologie – Gesellschaft für Gefäßmedizin. S2-Leitlinie: Diagnostik und Therapie der Venenthrombose und der Lungenembolie, Stand: 10.10.2015. http://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/065-002l_S2k_VTE_2016-01.pdf.

3.26 S3-Leitlinie Prophylaxe der venösen Thromboembolie (VTE)2. komplett überarbeitete Auflage, Stand: 15.10.2015. http://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/003-001l_S3_VTE-Prophylaxe_2015-12.pdf

4. Grundkenntnisse Vorhofflimmern und Schlaganfall

4.1 Chugh SS, Blackshear JL, Shen WK, et al. Epidemiology and natural history of atrial fibrillation: clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37:371.

4.2 Schnabel RB, Sullivan LM, Levy D et al. Development of a risk score for atrial fibrillation (Framingham Heart Study): a community-based cohort study. Lancet. 2009;373:739–45

4.3 Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Vaziri SM et al. Independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation in a population-based cohort: the Framingham Heart Study. JAMA. 1994;271:840

4.4 Heeringa J, van der Kuip DA, Hofman A et al. Prevalence, incidence and lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam study. Eur Heart J. 2006;27:949

4.5 Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Gersh BJ et al. Secular trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980 to 2000, and implications on the projections for future prevalence. Circulation. 2006;114:119

4.6 Naccarelli GV, Varker H, Lin J, Schulman KL. Increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation and flutter in the United States. Am J Cardiol. 2009;104:1534

4.7 Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA. 2001;285:2370

4.8 Marini C, De Santis F, Sacco S et al. Contribution of atrial fibrillation to incidence and outcome of ischemic stroke: results from a population-based study. Stroke. 2005Jun;36(6):1115

4.9 Lamassa M, Di Carlo A, Pracucci G et al. Characteristics, outcome, and care of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation in Europe. Stroke 2001;32:392

4.10 Dulli DA, Stanko H, Levine RL. Atrial fbrillation is associated with severe acute ischemic stroke. Neuroepidemiology 2003;22:118

4.11 Gage, BF; Waterman AD, Shannon W, Boechler M, Rich MW, Radford MJ (2001). “Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation”. JAMA 2001; 285: 2864.

4.12 Tang RB, Dong JZ, Liu XP, et al. Is CHA2DS2-VASc score a predictor of left atrial thrombus in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation? Thromb Haemost 2011; 105:1107.

5. Grundkenntnisse koronare Herzkrankheit und Stentimplantation

5.1 Kaiser C, Galatius S, Erne P et al. Drug-eluting versus bare-metal stents in large coronary arteries. N Engl J Med 2010; 363:2310

5.2 Levine GN, Bates ER, Blankenship JC et al ACCF/AHA/SCAI Guideline for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 58:e44

Zusatzliteratur Pharmakologische Therapie

6. Heparine

6.1 Baglin T, Barrowcliffe TW, Cohen A, et al. Guidelines on the use and monitoring of heparin. Br J Haematol 2006; 133:19

6.2 Masuko S, Linhardt RJ. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of the next generation of ultralow MW heparin therapeutics. Future Med Chem 2012; 4:289.

6.3 Muñoz EM, Linhardt RJ. Heparin-binding domains in vascular biology. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24:1549.

6.4 Kandrotas RJ. Heaprin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacokinet 1992; 22: 359-74

6.5 Hirsh J. Heparin. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1565-74

6.6 Hirsh J, Bauer KA, Donati MB, et al. Parenteral anticoagulants: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133:141S.

6.7 Verstraete M. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins. Drugs 1990; 40: 498.

6.8 Hirsh J, Levine MN. Low molecular weight heparin. Blood 1992; 79:1.

6.9 Weitz JI. Low-molecular-weight heparins. N Engl J Med 1997; 337:688.

6.10 Marcum JA, McKenney JB, Rosenberg RD. Acceleration of thrombin-antithrombin complex formation in rat hindquarters via heparinlike molecules bound to the endothelium. J Clin Invest 1984; 74:341.

6.11 Perry DJ. Antithrombin and its inherited deficiencies. Blood Rev 1994; 8:37.

6.12 Choay J, Petitou M, Lormeau JC, et al. Structure-activity relationship in heparin: a synthetic pentasaccharide with high affinity for antithrombin III and eliciting high anti-factor Xa activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1983; 116:492.

6.13 Danielsson A, Raub E, Lindahl U, Björk I. Role of ternary complexes, in which heparin binds both antithrombin and proteinase, in the acceleration of the reactions between antithrombin and thrombin or factor Xa. J Biol Chem 1986; 261:15467.

6.14 Jordan RE, Oosta GM, Gardner WT, Rosenberg RD. The kinetics of hemostatic enzyme-antithrombin interactions in the presence of low molecular weight heparin. J Biol Chem 1980; 255:10081.

6.15 Hirsh J, Bauer KA, Donati MB, et al. Parenteral anticoagulants: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133:141S.

6.16 Baglin T, Barrowcliffe TW, Cohen A, et al. Guidelines on the use and monitoring of heparin. Br J Haematol 2006; 133:19

6.17 Raschke R, Hirsh J, Guidry JR. Suboptimal monitoring and dosing of unfractionated heparin in comparative studies with low-molecular-weight heparin. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138:720.

6.18 Brill-Edwards P, Ginsberg JS, Johnston M, Hirsh J. Establishing a therapeutic range for heparin therapy. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119:104.

6.19 Linkins LA, Dans AL, Moores LK, et al. Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141:e495S.

6.20 Warkentin TE, Greinacher A, Koster A, et al. Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133:340S.

6.21 Tsang D, Shalansky KF, Lum E (2009) Evaluation of 2 weight-based protocols for administration of heparin. Can J Hosp Pharm 62:448.

6.22 Cruickshank MK, Levine MN, Hirsh J, et al. A standard heparin nomogram for the management of heparin therapy. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151:333.

6.23 Kearon C, Kahn SR, Agnelli G, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133:454S.

6.24 Garcia DA, Baglin TP, Weitz JI, et al. Parenteral anticoagulants: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141:e24S.

6.25 Hull RD, Raskob GE, Rosenbloom D, et al. Optimal therapeutic level of heparin therapy in patients with venous thrombosis. Arch Intern Med 1992; 152:1589.

6.26 Saya FG, Coleman LT, Martinoff JT. Pharmacist-directed heparin therapy using a standard dosing and monitoring protocol. Am J Hosp Pharm 1985; 42:1965.

6.27 Kershaw B, White RH, Mungall D et al. Computer-assisted dosing of heparin. Management with a pharmacy-based anticoagulation service. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154:1005.

6.28 Ramacciotti E, Araujo GR, Lastoria S et al. An open-label, comparative study of the efficacy and safety of once-daily dose of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in the treatment of proximal lower limb deep-vein thrombosis. Thromb Res 2004; 114:149.

6.29 Phung OJ, Kahn SR, Cook DJ et al. Dosing frequency of unfractionated heparin thromboprophylaxis: a meta-analysis. Chest 2011; 140:374.

6.30 Rivey MP, Peterson JP. Pharmacy-managed, weight-based heparin protocol. Am J Hosp Pharm 1993; 50:279.

6.31 Hirsh J, Bauer KA, Donati MB, et al. Parenteral anticoagulants: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133:141S.

6.32 White RH, Ginsberg JS. Low-molecular-weight heparins: are they all the same? Br J Haematol 2003; 121:12.

6.33 Harenberg J, Gnasso A, de Vries JX, et al. Inhibition of low molecular weight heparin by protamine chloride in vivo. Thromb Res 1985; 38:11.

6.34 Turpie AG. Pharmacology of the low-molecular-weight heparins. Am Heart J 1998; 135:S329.

6.35 Hirsh J, Levine MN. Low molecular weight heparin. Blood 1992; 79:1.

6.36 Garcia DA, Baglin TP, Weitz JI, et al. Parenteral anticoagulants: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141:e24S

6.37 Rojas L, Aizman A, Ernst D, et al. Anti-Xa activity after enoxaparin prophylaxis in hospitalized patients weighing less than fifty-five kilograms. Thromb Res 2013; 132:761.

6.38 Freeman A, Horner T, Pendleton RC, Rondina MT. Prospective comparison of three enoxaparin dosing regimens to achieve target anti-factor Xa levels in hospitalized, medically ill patients with extreme obesity. Am J Hematol 2012; 87:740.

6.39 Patel JP, Roberts LN, Arya R. Anticoagulating obese patients in the modern era. Br J Haematol 2011; 155:137.

6.40 Hainer JW, Barrett JS, Assaid CA, et al. Dosing in heavy-weight/obese patients with the LMWH, tinzaparin: a pharmacodynamic study. Thromb Haemost 2002; 87:817

6.41 Juergens CP, Semsarian C, Keech AC, et al. Hemorrhagic complications of intravenous heparin use. Am J Cardiol 1997; 80:150

6.42 Hull RD, Raskob GE, Rosenbloom D, et al. Heparin for 5 days as compared with 10 days in the initial treatment of proximal venous thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1990; 322:1260.

6.43 Lim W, Dentali F, Eikelboom JW, Crowther MA. Meta-analysis: low-molecular-weight heparin and bleeding in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med 2006; 144:673.

6.44 Davidson BL, Verheijen S, Lensing AW, et al. Bleeding risk of patients with acute venous thromboembolism taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin. JAMA Intern Med 2014; 174:947.

6.45 Crowther M, Lim W. Low molecular weight heparin and bleeding in patients with chronic renal failure. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2007; 13:409.

6.46 Juergens CP, Semsarian C, Keech AC, et al. Hemorrhagic complications of intravenous heparin use. Am J Cardiol 1997; 80:150

6.47 Campbell NR, Hull RD, Brant R, et al. Aging and heparin-related bleeding. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156:857.

6.48 Schindewolf M, Kroll H, Ackermann H, et al. Heparin-induced non-necrotizing skin lesions: rarely associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8:1486.

6.49 Schindewolf M, Schwaner S, Wolter M, et al. Incidence and causes of heparin-induced skin lesions. CMAJ 2009; 181:477

6.50 Dager WE, Dougherty JA, Nguyen PH, Militello MA, Smythe MA. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: treatment options and special considerations. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:564-87.

6.51 Bernstein IL. Anaphylaxis to heparin sodium; report of a case, with immunologic studies. J Am Med Assoc 1956; 161:1379.

6.52 Berkun Y, Haviv YS, Schwartz LB, Shalit M. Heparin-induced recurrent anaphylaxis. Clin Exp Allergy 2004; 34:1916.

6.53 Schindewolf M, Lindhoff-Last E, Ludwig RJ, Boehncke WH. Heparin-induced skin lesions. Lancet 2012; 380:1867.

6.54 Koulouri O, Moran C, Halsall D, Chatterjee K, Gurnell M. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;27:745-62.

6.55 Bengalorkar GM, Sarala N, Venkatrathnamma PN, Kumar TN. Effect of heparin and low-molecular weight heparin on serum potassium and sodium levels. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2011; 2:266.

6.56 Ezzatzadegan Jahromi S, Mahmoodi MS, Behroozi F, et al. Effect of switching unfractionated heparin to low-molecular-weight heparin on serum potassium in hemodialysis patients. Iran J Kidney Dis 2014; 8:475.

6.57 Dahlman TC. Osteoporotic fractures and the recurrence of thromboembolism during pregnancy and the puerperium in 184 women undergoing thromboprophylaxis with heparin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168:1265.

6.58 http://www.fachinfo.de/suche/fi/021075

6.59 Massonnet-Castel S, Pelissier E, Bara L, et al. Partial reversal of low molecular weight heparin (PK 10169) anti-Xa activity by protamine sulfate: in vitro and in vivo study during cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Haemostasis 1986; 16:139.

6.60 Singla A, Sullivan MJ, Lee G, et al. Protamine-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Transfusion 2013; 53:2158.

 

7. Heparinoide

7.1 Nurmohamed MT, Fareed J, Hoppensteadt D, et al. Pharmacological and clinical studies with Lomoparan, a low molecular weight glycosaminoglycan. Semin Thromb Hemost 1991; 17 Suppl 2:205

7.2 Danhof M, de Boer A, Magnani HN, Stiekema JC. Pharmacokinetic considerations on Orgaran (Org 10172) therapy. Haemostasis 1992; 22:73

7.3 Kelton JG, Arnold DM, Bates SM. Nonheparin anticoagulants for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:737.

8. Fondaparinux

8.1 Bauer KA. Fondaparinux sodium: a selective inhibitor of factor Xa. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2001; 58 Suppl 2:S14.

8.2 Dong WJ, Qian HJ, Qian Y, Zhou L, Hu SL. Fondaparinux vs. enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement: A meta-analysis. Exp Ther Med. 2016;12:969.

8.3 Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Comparison of Fondaparinux and Enoxaparin in Acute Coronary Syndromes − The Fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes Investigators. N Engl J Med, 2006;354:1464-76.

8.4 Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Effects of Fondaparinux on Mortality and Reinfarction in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: The OASIS-6 Randomized Trial. JAMA, 2006b; 295:1519.

8.5 O’Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 2013, 127:e362-425.

8.6 http://www.fachinfo.de/suche/fi/010460

8.7 Dempfle CE. Minor Transplacental Passage of Fondaparinux in vivo. N Engl J Med, 2004; 350:1914.

8.8 Guyatt GH, Akl EA, Crowther M, et al. Executive Summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012, 141(2 Suppl):7.

9. Cumarin-Derivate

9.1 Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, et al. Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133:160S.

9.2 http://www.fachinfo.de/suche/fi/020021

9.3 Teepe RG, Broekmans AW, Vermeer BJ, et al. Recurrent coumarin-induced skin necrosis in a patient with an acquired functional protein C deficiency. Arch Dermatol 1986; 122:1408.

9.4 Bauer KA. Coumarin-induced skin necrosis. Arch Dermatol 1993; 129:766.

10. Direkte orale Antikoagulantien

10.1 Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, et al; ROCKET AF Investigators. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:883.

10.2 Cappato R, Ezekowitz MD, Klein AL, et al. Rivaroxaban vs. vitamin K antagonists for cardioversion in atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2014; 35:3346.

10.3 Eriksson BI, Kakkar AK, Turpie AG, et al. Oral rivaroxaban for the prevention of symptomatic venous thromboembolism after elective hip and knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br.2009;91:636.

10.4 EINSTEIN Investigators, Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, et al. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2499.

10.5 Kubitza D, Becka M, Zuehlsdorf M, et al. Body Weight has Limited Influence on the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, or Pharmacodynamics of Rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) in Healthy Subjects,” J Clin Pharmacol, 2007; 47:218.

10.6 Turpie AG, Lassen MR, Eriksson BI, et al, “Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism After Hip or Knee Arthroplasty. Pooled Analysis of Four Studies,” Thromb Haemost, 2011, 105:444.

10.7 Watkins PB, Desai M, Berkowitz SD, et al. Evaluation of drug-induced serious hepatotoxicity (eDISH): application of this data organization approach to phase III clinical trials of rivaroxaban after total hip or knee replacement surgery. Drug Saf. 2011;34:243.

10.8 Lassen MR, Raskob GE, Gallus A, et al. Apixaban Versus Enoxaparin for Thromboprophylaxis After Knee Replacement (ADVANCE-2): A Randomised Double-Blind Trial. Lancet 2010b; 375:807.

10.9 Lassen MR, Gallus A, Raskob GE, et al. Apixaban versus Enoxaparin for Thromboprophylaxis After Hip Replacement. N Engl J Med, 2010a, 363:2487.

10.10 Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, et al. Apixaban for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2013, 368:699.

10.11 Lu Y, Branstad R, Karim RM, Asinger RW. Consideration of clinical variables for choosing new anticoagulant alternatives to warfarin for the management of non-valvular atrial fibrillation. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014;39:628.

10.12 Hinojar R, Jimenez-Natcher JJ, Fernandez-Golfin C, Zamorano JL. New oral anticoagulants: a practical guide for physicians. Eur Heart J. 2015;1:134.

10.13 American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society 2015 updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63:2227.

10.14 http://www.akdae.de/Arzneimitteltherapie/NA/Archiv/201504-Lixiana-DVT.pdf

10.15 Bounameaux H, Camm AJ. Edoxaban: an update on the new oral direct factor Xa inhibitor. Drugs 2014;74:1209.

10.16 Dentali F, Riva N, Crowther M, et al. Efficacy and safety of the novel oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Circulation 2012; 126:2381.

10.17 Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:2093

10.18 Hokusai-VTE Investigators, Büller HR, Décousus H, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1406.

10.19 Camm AJ, Bounameaux H. Edoxaban: a new oral direct factor Xa inhibitor. Drugs 2011; 71:1503.

10.20 Raskob G, Cohen AT, Eriksson BI et al. Oral direct factor Xa inhibition with edoxaban for thromboprophylaxis after elective total hip replacement. A randomized double-blind dose response study. Thromb Haemost 2010; 104:642

10.21 Fuji F, Fujita S, Tachibana S et al. A dosing ranging study evaluating the oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8:2458.

10.22 Cuker A, Husseinzadeh H. Laboratory measurement of the anticoagulant activity of edoxaban: a systematic review. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2015; 39:288.

10.23 Powell JR. Are new oral anticoagulant dosing recommendations optimal for all patients? JAMA 2015; 313:1013.

10.24 Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48). N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2093.

10.25 Reilly PA, Lehr T, Haertter S, et al; RE-LY Investigators. The effect of dabigatran plasma concentrations and patient characteristics on the frequency of ischemic stroke and major bleeding in atrial fibrillation patients: the RE-LY Trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:321.

10.26 Nutescu EA, Shapiro NL, and Chevalier A. New Anticoagulant Agents: Direct Thrombin Inhibitors. Cardiol Clin, 2008, 26: 169.

10.27 Kalabalik J, Rattinger GB, Sullivan J, Slugocki M, Carbone A, Rivkin A. Use of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Special Patient Populations with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Review of the Literature and Application to Clinical Practice. Drugs. 2015;75:979.

10.28 Reilly PA, Lehr T, Haertter S, et al; RE-LY Investigators. The effect of dabigatran plasma concentrations and patient characteristics on the frequency of ischemic stroke and major bleeding in atrial fibrillation patients: the RE-LY Trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:321.

10.29 Stangier J, Eriksson BI, Dahl OE, et al, “Pharmacokinetic Profile of the Oral Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Dabigatran Etexilate in Healthy Volunteers and Patients Undergoing Total Hip Replacement,” J Clin Pharmacol, 2005; 45: 555.

10.30 Stangier J, Rathgen K, Stähle H, et al. Influence of Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Dabigatran Etexilate. Clin Pharmacokinet, 2010; 49:259.

10.31 Guyatt GH, Akl EA, Crowther M, et al. Executive Summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012, 141:7-47

10.32 Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, et al. Extended Use of dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:709.

10.33 Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2342.

10.34 Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran Versus Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. N Engl J Med, 2009, 361:1139.

10.35 Graham DJ, Reichman ME, Wernecke M, et al. Cardiovascular, bleeding, and mortality risks in elderly Medicare patients treated with dabigatran or warfarin for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2015;131:157.

10.36 Smetzer J, Cohen M, eds. Signals for dabigatran and metoclopramide. ISMP Medication Safety Alert! Acute Care Edition. 2012;17:1.

10.37 Sharma M, Cornelius VR, Patel JP, Davies JG, Molokhia M. Efficacy and Harms of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in the Elderly for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation and Secondary Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circulation. 2015;132:194.

10.38 Smetzer J, Cohen M, eds. Safety contrasts for 3 newer anticoagulants. ISMP Medication Safety Alert! Acute Care Edition. 2015;20:2.

10.39 Bapat P, Kedar R, Lubetsky A, et al. Transfer of dabigatran and dabigatran etexilate mesylate across the dually perfused human placenta. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123:1256.

10.40 Guyatt GH, Akl EA, Crowther M, et al. Executive Summary: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest, 2012, 141:7.

10.41 Pollack CV Jr, Reilly PA, Eikelboom J, Glund S, Verhamme P, Bernstein RA, Dubiel R, Huisman MV, Hylek EM, Kamphuisen PW, Kreuzer J, Levy JH, Sellke FW, Stangier J, Steiner T, Wang B, Kam CW, Weitz JI. Idarucizumab for Dabigatran Reversal. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:511-20.

11. Thrombozytenaggregationshemmer

11.1 Algra AM, Rothwell PM. Effects of regular aspirin on long-term cancer incidence and metastasis: a systematic comparison of evidence from observational  studies versus randomised trials. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:518.

11.2 Ziegler S, Schillinger M, Funk M, et al. Association of a functional polymorphism in the clopidogrel target receptor gene, P2Y12, and the risk for ischemic cerebrovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease. Stroke 2005; 36:1394.

11.3 Myers GR, Hoffman MK, and Marshall ES. Clopidogrel Use Throughout Pregnancy in a Patient With a Drug-Eluting Coronary Stent. Obstet Gynecol, 2011, 118:432.

11.4 De Santis M, De Luca C, Mappa I, et al. Clopidogrel Treatment During Pregnancy: A Case Report and a Review of Literature. Intern Med, 2011, 50:1769.

11.5 Bauer ME, Bauer ST, Rabbani AB, et al. Peripartum Management of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy and Neuraxial Labor Analgesia After Bare Metal Stent Insertion for Acute Myocardial Infarction. Anesth Analg, 2012; 115:613.

11.6 Brandt JT, Close SL, Iturria SJ, et al. Common polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel but not prasugrel. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5:2429.

11.7 Mega JL, Close SL, Wiviott SD, et al. Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms and the response to prasugrel: relationship to pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical outcomes. Circulation 2009; 119:2553.

11.8 Cattaneo M. New P2Y(12) inhibitors. Circulation 2010; 121:171.

11.9 Angiolillo DJ, Capranzano P. Pharmacology of emerging novel platelet inhibitors. Am Heart J 2008; 156:S10.

Zusatzliteratur Klinische Aspekte

12. Antikoagulation bei tiefer Venenthrombose und Lungenembolie

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12.2 Akl EA, Kahale L, Sperati F, et al. Low molecular weight heparin versus unfractionated heparin for perioperative thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; :CD009447.

12.3 Fox BD, Kahn SR, Langleben D, et al. Efficacy and safety of novel oral anticoagulants for treatment of acute venous thromboembolism: direct and adjusted indirect meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2012; 345:e7498.

12.4 van der Hulle T, Kooiman J, den Exter PL, et al. Effectiveness and safety of novel oral anticoagulants as compared with vitamin K antagonists in the treatment of acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost 2014; 12:320.

12.5 Robertson L, Yeoh SE, Stansby G, Agarwal R. Effect of testing for cancer on cancer- and venous thromboembolism (VTE)-related mortality and morbidity in patients with unprovoked VTE. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; CD010837.

12.6 Diagnostik und Therapie der Venenthrombose und der Lungenembolie (S2-Leitlinie: 2015); AWMF Leitlinien-Register Nr.065/002

13. Schlaganfallprophylaxe bei Patienten ohne Vorhofflimmern

13.1 Johnson ES, Lanes SF, Wentworth CE, et al. A metaregression analysis of the dose-response effect of aspirin on stroke. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1248.

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13.5 The European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS). Principal end-points. The ESPS Group. Lancet 1987; 2:1351.

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13.7 Johnson ES, Lanes SF, Wentworth CE 3rd, et al. A metaregression analysis of the dose-response effect of aspirin on stroke. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159:1248.

13.8 Farrell B, Godwin J, Richards S, Warlow C. The United Kingdom transient ischaemic attack (UK-TIA) aspirin trial: final results. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991; 54:1044.

13.9 Algra A, van Gijn J. Cumulative meta-analysis of aspirin efficacy after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;66:255.

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13.11 Diener HC, Sacco RL, Yusuf S, et al. Effects of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial: a double-blind, active and placebo-controlled study. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:875.

14. Schlaganfallprophylaxe bei Patienten mit Vorhofflimmern

14.1 Grau AJ, Weimar C, Buggle F, Heinrich A, Goertler M, Neumaier S, Glahn J, Brandt T, Hacke W, Diener HC. Risk factors, outcome, and treatment in subtypes of ischemic stroke: the German stroke data bank. Stroke 2001;32:2559.

14.2 Morocutti C, Amabile G, Fattapposta F, Nicolosi A, Matteoli S, Trappolini M, Cataldo G, Milanesi G, Lavezzari M, Pamparana F, Coccheri S. Indobufen versus warfarin in the secondary prevention of major vascular events in nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. SIFA (Studio Italiano Fibrillazione Atriale) Investigators. Stroke 1997;28:1015.

14.3 Saxena R, Koudstaal P. Anticoagulants versus antiplatelet therapy for preventing stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation and a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2004;(4):CD000187.

14.4 Gage BF, Birman-Deych E, Kerzner R, Radford MJ, Nilasena DS, Rich MW. Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation who are prone to fall. Am J Med 2005;118:612.

14.5 Lovelock CE, Cordonnier C, Naka H, et al. Antithrombotic drug use, cerebral microbleeds, and intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review of published and unpublished studies. Stroke 2010;41:1222.

15. Antikoagulation bei ACS und Vorhofflimmern

15.1 Jolly SS, Pogue J, Haladyn K, et al. Effects of aspirin dose on ischaemic events and bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the PCI-CURE study. Eur Heart J 2009; 30:900.

15.2 Lamberts M, Olesen JB, Ruwald MH, et al. Bleeding after initiation of multiple antithrombotic drugs, including triple therapy, in atrial fibrillation patients following myocardial infarction and coronary intervention: a nationwide cohort study. Circulation 2012; 126:1185.

15.3 Ruiz-Nodar JM, Marín F, Sánchez-Payá J, et al. Efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stent use in patients with atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2009; 30:932.

15.4 Schulz S, Schuster T, Mehilli J, et al. Stent thrombosis after drug-eluting stent implantation: incidence, timing, and relation to discontinuation of clopidogrel therapy over a 4-year period. Eur Heart J 2009; 30:2714.

15.5 Sambola A, Ferreira-González I, Angel J, et al. Therapeutic strategies after coronary stenting in chronically anticoagulated patients: the MUSICA study. Heart 2009; 95:1483.

15.6 Lamberts M, Gislason GH, Olesen JB, et al. Oral anticoagulation and antiplatelets in atrial fibrillation patients after myocardial infarction and coronary intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62:981.

15.7 Holmes DR Jr, Kereiakes DJ, Kleiman NS, et al. Combining antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54:95.

15.8 Sarafoff N, Ndrepepa G, Mehilli J, et al. Aspirin and clopidogrel with or without phenprocoumon after drug eluting coronary stent placement in patients on chronic oral anticoagulation. J Intern Med 2008; 264:472.

15.9 Schömig A, Sarafoff N, Seyfarth M. Triple antithrombotic management after stent implantation: when and how? Heart 2009; 95:1280.

15.10 Dewilde WJ, Oirbans T, Verheugt FW, et al. Use of clopidogrel with or without aspirin in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet 2013; 381:1107.

15.11 Lip GY, Windecker S, Huber K, et al. Management of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary or valve interventions: a joint consensus document of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and European Association of Acute Cardiac Care (ACCA) endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS). Eur Heart J 2014; 35:3155.

15.12 Dans AL, Connolly SJ, Wallentin L, et al. Concomitant use of antiplatelet therapy with dabigatran or warfarin in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial. Circulation 2013; 127:634.

15.13 Valgimigli M, Patialiakas A, Thury A, et al. Zotarolimus-eluting versus bare-metal stents in uncertain drug-eluting stent candidates. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015; 65:805.

16. Behandlung von Komplikationen

16.1 Chai-Adisaksopha C, Crowther M, Isayama T, Lim W. The impact of bleeding complications in patients receiving target-specific oral anticoagulants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood 2014; 124:2450.

16.2 Majeed A, Hwang HG, Connolly SJ, et al. Management and outcomes of major bleeding during treatment with dabigatran or warfarin. Circulation 2013; 128:2325.

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16.5 Piccini JP, Garg J, Patel MR, et al. Management of major bleeding events in patients treated with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin: results from the ROCKET AF trial. Eur Heart J 2014; 35:1873.

16.6 Hylek EM, Held C, Alexander JH, et al. Major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving apixaban or warfarin: The ARISTOTLE Trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation): Predictors, Characteristics, and Clinical Outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63:2141

16.7 Sharma M, Cornelius VR, Patel JP, et al. Efficacy and Harms of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in the Elderly for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation and Secondary Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circulation 2015; 132:194.

16.8 Southworth MR, Reichman ME, Unger EF. Dabigatran and postmarketing reports of bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:1272.

16.9 Fihn SD, Callahan CM, Martin DC, et al. The risk for and severity of bleeding complications in elderly patients treated with warfarin. The National Consortium of Anticoagulation Clinics. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124:970.

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16.14 Cairns JA, Connolly S, McMurtry S, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines 2010: prevention of stroke and systemic thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation and flutter. Can J Cardiol 2011; 27:74.

16.15 Olesen JB, Lip GY, Hansen PR, et al. Bleeding risk in ‘real world’ patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison of two established bleeding prediction schemes in a nationwide cohort. J Thromb Haemost 2011; 9:1460.

16.16 European Heart Rhythm Association, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Camm AJ, et al. Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2010; 31:2369.

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16.18 Scaglione F. New oral anticoagulants: comparative pharmacology with vitamin K antagonists. Clin Pharmacokinet 2013; 52:69.

16.19 Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S. Drug drug interactions between antithrombotic medications and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. CMAJ 2007; 177:347.

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16.21 Limdi NA, Beasley TM, Baird MF, et al. Kidney function influences warfarin responsiveness and hemorrhagic complications. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20:912.

16.22 Schelleman H, Bilker WB, Brensinger CM, et al. Fibrate/Statin initiation in warfarin users and gastrointestinal bleeding risk. Am J Med 2010; 123:151.

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16.25 Crowther MA, Ageno W, Garcia D, et al. Oral vitamin K versus placebo to correct excessive anticoagulation in patients receiving warfarin: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150:293.

16.26 Kucher N, Connolly S, Beckman JA, et al. International normalized ratio increase before warfarin-associated hemorrhage: brief and subtle. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164:2176.

16.27 Siegal DM, Crowther MA. Acute management of bleeding in patients on novel oral anticoagulants. Eur Heart J 2013; 34:489.

16.28 Xu Y, Wu W, Wang L, et al. Differential profiles of thrombin inhibitors (heparin, hirudin, bivalirudin, and dabigatran) in the thrombin generation assay and thromboelastography in vitro. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2013; 24:332.

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16.30 Siegal DM, Crowther MA. Acute management of bleeding in patients on novel oral anticoagulants. Eur Heart J 2013; 34:489.

16.31 Casutt M, Konrad C, Schuepfer G. Effect of rivaroxaban on blood coagulation using the viscoelastic coagulation test ROTEM™. Anaesthesist 2012; 61:948.

16.32 Herrmann R, Thom J, Wood A, et al. Thrombin generation using the calibrated automated thrombinoscope to assess reversibility of dabigatran and rivaroxaban. Thromb Haemost 2014; 111:989.

16.33 Eller T, Busse J, Dittrich M, et al. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, argatroban and fondaparinux and their effects on coagulation POC and platelet function tests. Clin Chem Lab Med 2014; 52:835.

16.34 Pollack CV Jr, Reilly PA, Eikelboom J, et al. Idarucizumab for Dabigatran Reversal. N Engl J Med 2015; 373:511.

16.35 Siegal DM, Curnutte JT, Connolly SJ et al. Andexanet Alfa for the reversal of factor Xa inhibitor activity. N Engl J Med 2015; 373: 2413.

16.36 Schiele F, van Ryn J, Canada K, et al. A specific antidote for dabigatran: functional and structural characterization. Blood 2013; 121:3554

16.37 Girolami B, Prandoni P, Stefani PM, et al. The incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in hospitalized medical patients treated with subcutaneous unfractionated heparin: a prospective cohort study. Blood 2003; 101:2955.

16.38 Smythe MA, Koerber JM, Mattson JC. The incidence of recognized heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a large, tertiary care teaching hospital. Chest 2007; 131:1644.

16.39 Warkentin TE, Sheppard JA, Sigouin CS, et al. Gender imbalance and risk factor interactions in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood 2006; 108:2937.

16.40 Martel N, Lee J, Wells PS. Risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis: a meta-analysis. Blood 2005; 106:2710.

16.41 Greinacher A, Pötzsch B, Amiral J, et al. Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: isolation of the antibody and characterization of a multimolecular PF4-heparin complex as the major antigen. Thromb Haemost 1994; 71:247.

16.42 Warkentin TE, Basciano PA, Knopman J, Bernstein RA. Spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome: 2 new cases and a proposal for defining this disorder. Blood 2014; 123:3651.

16.43 Rauova L, Zhai L, Kowalska MA, et al. Role of platelet surface PF4 antigenic complexes in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia pathogenesis: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Blood 2006; 107:2346.

16.44 Visentin GP, Ford SE, Scott JP, Aster RH. Antibodies from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis are specific for platelet factor 4 complexed with heparin or bound to endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 1994; 93:81.

16.45 Rosenberger LH, Smith PW, Sawyer RG, et al. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage: the unrecognized cause of hemodynamic collapse associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Crit Care Med 2011; 39:833.

16.46 Kurtz LE, Yang S. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with heparin induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol 2007; 82:493.

16.47 Lee GM, Arepally GM. Diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2013; 27:541

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16.49 Goel R, Ness PM, Takemoto CM, et al. Platelet transfusions in platelet consumptive disorders are associated with arterial thrombosis and in-hospital mortality. Blood 2015; 125:1470.

17. Schwangerschaft und Antikoagulation

17.1 Howie PW. Anticoagulants in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1986; 13:349.

17.2 Weitz JI. Low-molecular-weight heparins. N Engl J Med 1997; 337:688.

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17.4 Ginsberg JS, Kowalchuk G, Hirsh J, et al. Heparin therapy during pregnancy. Risks to the fetus and mother. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149:2233.

17.5 Litin SC, Gastineau DA. Current concepts in anticoagulant therapy. Mayo Clin Proc 1995; 70:266.

17.6 Cosmi B, Hirsh J. Low molecular weight heparins. Curr Opin Cardiol 1994; 9:612.

17.7 Norris LA, Bonnar J, Smith MP, et al. Low molecular weight heparin (tinzaparin) therapy for moderate risk thromboprophylaxis during pregnancy. A pharmacokinetic study. Thromb Haemost 2004; 92:791.

17.8 Jacobsen AF, Qvigstad E, Sandset PM. Low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. BJOG 2003; 110:139.

17.9 Hunt BJ, Doughty HA, Majumdar G, et al. Thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (Fragmin) in high risk pregnancies. Thromb Haemost 1997; 77:39

17.10 Magnani HN. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT): an overview of 230 patients treated with orgaran (Org 10172). Thromb Haemost 1993; 70:554.

17.11 Lindhoff-Last E, Kreutzenbeck HJ, Magnani HN. Treatment of 51 pregnancies with danaparoid because of heparin intolerance. Thromb Haemost 2005; 93:63.

17.12 Knol HM, Schultinge L, Erwich JJ, Meijer K. Fondaparinux as an alternative anticoagulant therapy during pregnancy. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8:1876

17.13 Elsaigh E, Thachil J, Nash MJ, et al. The use of fondaparinux in pregnancy. Br J Haematol 2015; 168:762

17.14Ekbatani A, Asaro LR, Malinow AM. Anticoagulation with argatroban in a parturient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2010; 19:82.

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17.19 Pauli RM, Lian JB, Mosher DF, Suttie JW. Association of congenital deficiency of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and the phenotype of the warfarin embryopathy: clues to the mechanism of teratogenicity of coumarin derivatives. Am J Hum Genet 1987; 41:566.

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18. Perioperatives und periprozedulaes Bridging

18.1 Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M et al. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625–651

18.2 Schinzel H, Weilemann LS. Gerinnungsmonitoring – praktisches Management. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2014; 139(Suppl 1):S27–S30

18.3 Nagge J, Crowther M, Hirsh J. Is impaired renal function a contraindication to the use of low-molecular-weight heparin? Arch Intern Med 2002; 162:2605.

18.4 Crowther M, Lim W. Low molecular weight heparin and bleeding in patients with chronic renal failure. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2007; 13:409.

18.5 Raunsø J, Selmer C, Olesen JB et al. Increased short-term risk of thrombo-embolism or death after interruption of warfarin treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2012; 33:1886–1892

18.6 Hoffmeister HM, Bode C, Darius H et al. Unterbrechung antithrombotischer Behandlung (Bridging) bei kardialen Erkrankungen. Kardiologe 2010; 4:365–374

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D-10117 Berlin