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Literatur und weiterführende Links (EXPERT 07-09)

1. Literatur Grundlagenwissen Hypertonie

1.1 Janeway TC. A study of the causes of death in 100 persons with high blood-pressure. JAMA 1912;59: 2106–9.

1.2 Coresh J, Wei GL, McQuillan G, et al. Prevalence of high blood pressure and elevated serum creatinine level in the United States: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:1207.

1.3 Thrift AG, McNeil JJ, Forbes A, Donnan GA. Risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage in the era of well-controlled hypertension. Melbourne Risk Factor Study (MERFS) Group. Stroke 1996; 27:2020.

1.4 MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, Collins R, Sorlie P, Neaton J, Abbott R, Godwin J, Dyer A, Stamler J.Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, prolonged differences in blood pressure:prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990; 335: 765–74.

1.5 Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J: Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005; 365: 217–23.

1.6 Kaplan NM, Victor RG. Hypertension in the population at large. In: Kaplan’s Clinical Hypertension, 11th ed, Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia 2014. S1

1.7 Wolf-Maier K, Cooper RS, Banegas JR, Giampaoli S,Hense HW, Joffres M, Kastarinen M, Poulter N, Primatesta P, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Stegmayr B, Thamm M, Tuomilehto J, Vanuzzo D, Vescio F. Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States. JAMA 2003; 289: 2363–9.

1.8 Hense HW. Epidemiology of arterial hypertension and implications for its prevention. 10-years results of the MONICA Study Augsburg. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2000; 125: 1397–402.

1.9 Wilson PW. Established risk factors and coronary artery disease: the Framingham Study. Am J Hypertens 1994;7(7 Pt 2):7S–12S

1.10 Fink W, Haidinger G. Die Häufigkeit von Gesundheitsstörungen in 10 Jahren Allgemeinpraxis. Z Allg Med 2007;83:102–108

1.11 Diederichs C, Neuhauser H. Regional variations in hypertension prevalence and management in Germany: results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS 1). J Hypertens 2014;32:1405–1413

1.12 Neuhauser H, Thamm M, Ellert U: Blutdruck in Deutschland 2008–2011. Ergebnisse der Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland (DEGS1). Bundesgesundheitsblatt – Gesundheitsforschung – Gesundheitsschutz 2013; 56:795-801

1.13 Prugger C, Heuschmann PU, Keil U. Epidemiologie der Hypertonie in Deutschland und weltweit. Herz 2006; 31: 287–93.

1.14 Wang TJ, Vasan RS. Epidemiology of uncontrolled hypertension in the United States. Circulation 2005; 112:1651.

1.15 Lorell BH, Carabello BA. Left ventricular hypertrophy: pathogenesis, detection, and prognosis. Circulation 2000; 102:470–479

1.16 Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS et al. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure. JAMA 1996; 275:1557–1562

1.17 Picano E, Palinkas A, Amyot R. Diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2001;19:1177–1183

1.18 Esler A et al. Effects of aggressive blood pressure control in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients on albuminuria, retinopathy and strokes. Kidney Int 2002; 61:1086–1097

1.19 Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002; 360: 1903–13.

1.20 Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS, et al. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure. JAMA 1996; 275:1557.

1.21 Vakili BA, Okin PM, Devereux RB. Prognostic implications of left ventricular hypertrophy. Am Heart J 2001; 141:334.

1.22 Coresh J, Wei GL, McQuillan G et al (2001) Prevalence of high blood pressure and elevated serum creatinine level in the United States: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:1207

1.23 Hsu CY, McCulloch CE, Darbinian J, et al. Elevated blood pressure and risk of end-stage renal disease in subjects without baseline kidney disease. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165:923.

1.24 Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Evans JC, O’Donnell CJ, Kannel WB, Levy D. Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1291–7.

2. Literatur Ätiologie, Physiologie und Pathophysiologie

2.1 Diederichs C, Neuhauser H (2014) Regional variations in hypertension prevalence and management in Germany: results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS 1). J Hypertens 2014;32:1405–1413

2.2 Wang NY, Young JH, Meoni LA, et al. Blood pressure change and risk of hypertension associated with parental hypertension: the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168:643.

2.3 Staessen JA, Wang J, Bianchi G, Birkenhäger WH. Essential hypertension. Lancet 2003; 361:1629.

2.4 Forman JP, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Diet and lifestyle risk factors associated with incident hypertension in women. JAMA 2009; 302:401.

2.5 Sonne-Holm S, Sørensen TI, Jensen G, Schnohr P. Independent effects of weight change and attained body weight on prevalence of arterial hypertension in obese and non-obese men. BMJ 1989; 299:767.

2.6 Meng L, Chen D, Yang Y, et al. Depression increases the risk of hypertension incidence: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Hypertens 2012; 30:842.

2.7 Yan LL, Liu K, Matthews KA, et al. Psychosocial factors and risk of hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. JAMA 2003; 290:2138.

2.8 The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157:2413.

2.9 Schwartz GL: Screening for adrenal-endocrine hypertension: overview of accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 2011; 40: 279–94.

2.10 Rossi GP, Seccia TM, Pessina AC: Clinical use of laboratory tests for the identification of secondary forms of arterial hypertension. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2007; 44: 1–85.

2.11 Textor SC, Lerman L. Renovascular hypertension and ischemic nephropathy. Am J Hypertens 2010; 23:1159.

2.12 Novick AC, Zaki S, Goldfarb D, Hodge EE. Epidemiologic and clinical comparison of renal artery stenosis in black patients and white patients. J Vasc Surg 1994; 20:1.

2.13 Dworkin LD, Cooper CJ: Renal-Artery Stenosis. NEJM 2009; 361:1972–8

2.14 Rooke TW, Hirsch AT, Misra S, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA Focused Update of the Guideline for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (updating the 2005 guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 58:2020.

2.15 Ritchie J, Green D, Chrysochou C, et al. High-risk clinical presentations in atherosclerotic renovascular disease: prognosis and response to renal artery revascularization. Am J Kidney Dis 2014; 63:186.

2.16 Messerli FH, Bangalore S, Makani H, et al. Flash pulmonary oedema and bilateral renal artery stenosis: the Pickering syndrome. Eur Heart J 2011; 32:2231.

2.17 Turnbull JM. The rational clinical examination. Is listening for abdominal bruits useful in the evaluation of hypertension? JAMA 1995; 274:1299.

2.18 Funder J, Carey RM, Fardella C, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Mantero F, Stowasser M, Young WF, Montori VM: Case detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93: 3266–81.

2.19 Diederich S., Willenberg HS, Schirpenbach C, Hahner S, Quinkler M: Primary hyperaldosteronism – more common than previously thought. MMW Fortschr. Med 2010; 152: 32–35.

2.20 Nishizaka MK, Pratt-Ubunama M, Zaman MA, et al. Validity of plasma aldosterone-to-renin activity ratio in African American and white subjects with resistant hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18:805.

2.21 Goodfriend TL, Calhoun DA. Resistant hypertension, obesity, sleep apnea, and aldosterone: theory and therapy. Hypertension 2004; 43:518.

2.22 M. Quinkler, M. Fassnacht, S. Petersenn, N. Reisch, H.S. Willenberg, S. Diederich: Pheochromocytoma: current diagnostics and treatment. MMW Fortschr. Med. 2010; 152: 36–38.

2.23 Lenders JW, Pacak K, Walther MC et al. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best? JAMA 2002; 287:1427–1434

2.24 Unger N, Deutschbein T, Walz MK, Mann K, Petersenn S: The value of immunoassays for metanephrines in the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytomas. Horm Metab Res 2009; 41: 676–79.

2.25 Jimenez C, Cote G, Arnold A, Gagel RF: Review: Should patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas be screened for hereditary syndromes? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 2851–58.

2.26 Isidori AM, Graziadio C, Paragliola RM, Cozzolino A, Ambrogio AG, Colao A, Corsello SM, Pivonello R; ABC Study Group. The hypertension of Cushing’s syndrome: controversies in the pathophysiology and focus on cardiovascular complications. J Hypertens. 2015;33:44-60.

2.27 Somers VK, White DP, Amin R, et al. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: an American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research Professional Education Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke Council, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 52:686.

2.28 Logan AG, Perlikowski SM, Mente A, et al. High prevalence of unrecognized sleep apnoea in drug-resistant hypertension. J Hypertens 2001; 19:2271.

2.29 Saito I, Saruta T. Hypertension in thyroid disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1994; 23:379–86.

2.30 Saito I, Kunihiko T, Saruta T. Hypothyroidism as a cause of hypertension. Hypertension 1983; 5: 112–7.

2.31 Streeten DH, Anderson GH Jr, Howland T, et al. Effects of thyroid function on blood pressure. Recognition of hypothyroid hypertension. Hypertension 1988; 11:78.

2.32 Kanbay M, Isik B, Akcay A, et al. Relation between serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and ‘nondipper’ circadian blood pressure variability profile in patients with normal renal function. Am J Nephrol 2007; 27:516.

2.33 Lind L, Jacobsson S, Palmér M, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in primary hyperparathyroidism: a 15-year follow-up of operated and unoperated cases. J Intern Med 1991; 230:29.

2.34 Hampl H, Hennig L, Rosenberger C, Gogoll L, Riedel E, Scherhag A. Proven Strategies to Reduce Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients. Blood Purif 2006; 25: 100–6.

2.35 Wilson SL, Poulter NR. The effect of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other commonly used non-narcotic analgesics on blood pressure level in adults. J Hypertension 2006; 24: 1457–69.

2.36 Calhoun DA, Jones D, Textor S, et al. Resistant hypertension: Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension 2008; 51:1403

2.37 Sheldon R, Slaughter D. A syndrome of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, renal impairment, and pulmonary edema in chemotherapy-treated patients with adenocarcinoma. Cancer 1986; 58:1428.

2.38 Olivier P, Dugué A, Montastruc JL. Adverse cardiovascular and central neurologic reactions to sympathomimetics used as nasal decongestants: results of the French National Pharmacovigilance Survey. Therapie 2003; 58: 361–6.

2.39 Maitland ML, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. Initial assessment, surveillance, and management of blood pressure in patients receiving vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway inhibitors. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102:596.

3. Literatur Klassifikation und Symptomatik

3.1 Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2013; 31:1281.

4. Literatur Diagnostik

4.1 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for high blood pressure: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147:783.

4.2 Beevers G, Lip GY, O’Brien E. ABC of hypertension: Blood pressure measurement. Part II-conventional sphygmomanometry: technique of auscultatory blood pressure measurement. BMJ 2001; 322:1043.

4.3 Myers MG. A proposed algorithm for diagnosing hypertension using automated office blood pressure measurement. J Hypertens 2010; 28:703.

4.4 Mancia G, Fagard R et al (2013) ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 34:2159–2219

4.5 Turner RC, Holman RR; UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group (1998) Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS38. BMJ 317:703–713

4.6 Scholze J. Diagnostik der arteriellen Hypertonie. Der Kardiologe 2007; 3:197-208

4.7 Cuspidi C, Lonati L, Macca G, et al. Cardiovascular risk stratification in hypertensive patients: impact of echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. J Hypertens 2001; 19:375.

5. Literatur Stratifizierung des kardiovaskulären Gesamtrisikos

5.1 Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, et al. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2013;34:2159-219.

5.2 Anderson KM, Wilson PW, Odell PM, Kannel WB. An updated coronary risk profile. A statement for health professionals. Circulation 1991; 83: 356–62.

5.3 Wilson PW. Established risk factors and coronary artery disease: the Framingham Study. Am J Hypertens 1994; 7:7S.

5.4 Conroy RM, Pyorala K, Fitzgerald AP, Sans S, Menotti A, De Backer G, De Bacquer D, Ducimetiere P, Jousilahti P, Keil U, Njolstad I, Oganov RG, Thomsen T, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Tverdal A, Wedel H, Whincup P, Wilhelmsen L, Graham IM; SCORE project group. Estimation of tenyear risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 987–1003.

5.5 Lurbe E, Torro I, Alvarez V, et al. Prevalence, persistence, and clinical significance of masked hypertension in youth. Hypertension 2005; 45:493.

6. Literatur Allgemeines zur Therapie

6.1 Hebert PR, Moser M, Mayer J, et al. Recent evidence on drug therapy of mild to moderate hypertension and decreased risk of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153:578.

6.2 Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration, Turnbull F, Neal B, et al. Effects of different regimens to lower blood pressure on major cardiovascular events in older and younger adults: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2008; 336:1121.

6.3 Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63:2960.

6.4 de Simone G, Devereux RB, Chinali M, et al. Risk factors for arterial hypertension in adults with initial optimal blood pressure: the Strong Heart Study. Hypertension 2006; 47:162.

6.5 Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E et al: A clinical trial of the effects od dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 1117-1124.

6.6 Elmer PJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on diet, weight, physical fitness, and blood pressure control: 18-month results of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2006; 144:485.

6.7 Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM et al: Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the „Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension“ (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 3-10

6.8 He FJ, Li J, Macgregor GA. Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2013; 346:f1325

6.9 Aburto NJ, Ziolkovska A, Hooper L et al. Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ 2013; 346:f1326

6.10 Kotchen TA, Cowley AW Jr, Frohlich ED. Salt in health and disease – a delicate balance. N Engl J Med 2013;368(13):1229–1237

6.11 Mente A, O’Donnell MJ, Rangarajan S et al. Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:601–611

6.12 Rakova N, Juttner K, Dahlmann A et al. Long-term space flight simulation reveals infradian rhythmicity in human Na(+) balance. Cell Metab 2013; 17:125–131

6.13 Mozaffarian D, Fahimi S, Singh GM et al. Global sodium consumption and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:624–634

6.14 Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA, et al. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). TONE Collaborative Research Group. JAMA 1998; 279:839.

6.15 Tuck ML, Sowers J, Dornfeld L, et al. The effect of weight reduction on blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and plasma aldosterone levels in obese patients. N Engl J Med 1981; 304:930.

6.16 Stevens VJ, Corrigan SA, Obarzanek E, et al. Weight loss intervention in phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. The TOHP Collaborative Research Group. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153:849.

6.17 Alderman MH: Non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension. Lancet 1994; 30; 307-311.

6.18 Carnethon MR, Evans NS, Church TS, et al. Joint associations of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the development of incident hypertension: coronary artery risk development in young adults. Hypertension 2010; 56:49.

6.19 Mann SJ, James GD,Wang RS, Pickering TG. Elevation of ambulatory systolic blood pressure in hypertensive smokers. A case-control study. JAMA 1991;265:2226–2228.

6.20 Groppelli A, Giorgi DM, Omboni S, Parati G, Mancia G. Persistent blood pressure increase induced by heavy smoking. J Hypertens 1992;10:495–499.

6.21 LancasterT, Stead L. Physician advice for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD000165

6.22 Hajek P, Stead LF,West R, Jarvis M, Lancaster T. Relapse prevention interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD003999.

6.23 Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007:CD000031.

6.24 Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD006103.

6.25 Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, et al. A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US men. Circulation 1992; 86:1475.

 

7. Literatur Pharmakologische Therapie

7.1 Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2013; 31:1281.

7.2 James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA 2014; 311:507.

7.3 Bönner G, Rahn KH (1994) ACE-Hemmer-Handbuch, 2. Aufl. Schattauer, Stuttgart

7.4 McMurray JJ, Holman RR, Haffner SM et al. Effect of valsartan on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2010; 362:1477–1490

7.5 Yusuf S, Teo KK, Pogue J et al. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:1547–1559

7.6 Roush GC, Holford TR, Guddati AK. Chlorthalidone compared with hydrochlorothiazide in reducing cardiovascular events: systematic review and network meta-analyses. Hypertension 2012; 59:1110–1117

7.7 Bönner G, Dominiak P. Calciumkanalblocker-Handbuch. Schattauer, Stuttgart 2002.

7.8 Law MR, Morris JK, Wald NJ. Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies. BMJ 2009; 338:b1665.

7.9 Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration, Turnbull F, Neal B, et al. Effects of different regimens to lower blood pressure on major cardiovascular events in older and younger adults: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2008; 336:1121.

7.10 Rosendorff C, Black HR, Cannon CP, et al. Treatment of hypertension in the prevention and management of ischemic heart disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 2007; 115:2761.

7.11 Coresh J, Wei GL, McQuillan G et al. Prevalence of high blood pressure and elevated serum creatinine level in the United States: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:1207

7.12 Mancia G, Fagard R et al (2013) ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 34(28):2159–2219

7.13 Turner RC, Holman RR; UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS38. BMJ 1998; 317:703–713

7.14 Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Libby P, et al. Effect of antihypertensive agents on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease and normal blood pressure: the CAMELOT study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292:2217.

7.15 Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N, Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration. Lancet 2000; 356:1955.

7.16 Staessen JA, Wang JG, Thijs L. Cardiovascular prevention and blood pressure reduction: a quantitative overview updated until 1 March 2003. J Hypertens 2003; 21:1055.

7.17 Law MR, Morris JK, Wald NJ. Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies. BMJ 2009; 338:b1665.

7.18 Neaton JD, Grimm RH Jr, Prineas RJ, et al. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study. Final results. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study Research Group. JAMA 1993; 270:713.

7.19 Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, et al. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. The Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:914

7.20 Staessen JA, Wang JG, Thijs L. Cardiovascular prevention and blood pressure reduction: a quantitative overview updated until 1 March 2003. J Hypertens 2003; 21:1055

7.21 Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration, Turnbull F, Neal B, et al. Effects of different regimens to lower blood pressure on major cardiovascular events in older and younger adults: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2008; 336:1121.

7.22 Dahlöf B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al, for the LIFE study group. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002; 359: 995–1003.

7.23Dahlöf B, Sever PS, Poulter NR, et al: Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 895–906.

7.24 Webb AJ, Fischer U, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM. Effects of antihypertensive-drug class on interindividual variation in blood pressure and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2010; 375:906.

7.25 Weber MA, Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Blood pressure dependent and independent effects of antihypertensive treatment on clinical events in the VALUE Trial. Lancet 2004; 363:2049.

7.26 Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, et al. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet 2004; 363:2022

7.27 Braunwald E: Mechanism of action of calcium-channel-blocking agents. N Engl J Med 1982; 307:1618–1627.

7.28 Lefrandt JD, Heitmann J, Sevre K, et al: The effects of dihydro­pyridine and phenylalkylamine calcium antagonist classes on autonomic function in hypertension: the VAMPHYRE study. Am J Hypertens 2001; 14:1083–1089.

7.29 Siche JP, Baguet JP, Fagret D, et al: Effects of amlodipine on baroreflex and sympathetic nervous system activity in mild-to-moderate hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2001; 14:424–428.

7.30 Grossman E, Messerli FH: Effect of calcium antagonists on plasma norepinephrine levels, heart rate, and blood pressure. Am J Cardiol 80:1453–1458, 1997.

7.31 Lefrandt JD, Heitmann J, Sevre K, et al: Contrasting effects of verapamil and amlodipine on cardiovascular stress responses in hypertension. Br J Clin Pharnacol 2001; 52:687–692.

7.32 Chapman N, Chang CL, Dahlof B, et al: Effect of doxazosin gastrointestinal therapeutic system as third-line antihypertensive therapy on blood pressure and lipids in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial. Circulation 2008; 118:42–48.

7.33 Dahlöf B, Sever PS, Poulter NR, et al. Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366:895.

7.34 Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, et al: Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet 2004; 363:2022–2031.

7.35 Psaty BM, Lumley T, Furberg CD, Schellenbaum G, Pahor M, Alderman MH, Weiss NS. Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a network meta-analysis. JAMA 2003; 289: 2534–44.

7.36 Staessen JA, Wang JG, Thijs L. Cardiovascular prevention and blood pressure reduction: a quantitative overview updated until 1 March 2003. J Hypertens 2003; 21: 1055–76.

7.37 Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other

blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists‘ Collaboration. Lancet 2000; 356: 1955–64.

7.38 Liu L, Wang JG, Gong L, Liu G, Staessen JA. Comparison of active treatment and placebo in older Chinese patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in China (Syst-China) Collaborative Group. J Hypertens 1998; 16:1823–9.

7.39 Philipp T, Anlauf M, Distler A, Holzgreve H,Michaelis J, Wellek S, on behalf of the HANE Trial  Research Group. Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. Br Med J 1997; 315: 154–9.

7.40 Lüscher TF, Wenzel RR, Noll G. Calciumantagonisten in der Kontroverse: Gibt es eine rationale Differentialtherapie? Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1996; 121: 532–8.

7.41 Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S, Hebert P, Fiebach NH, Eberlein KA, Godwin J, Qizilbash N, Taylor JO, Hennekens CH. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet 1990; 335: 827–38.

7.42 Flack JM, Cushman WC. Evidence for the efficacy of low-dose diuretic monotherapy. Am J Med 1996; 101:53S.

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7.50 Ernst ME, Carter BL, Goerdt CJ, et al. Comparative antihypertensive effects of hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone on ambulatory and office blood pressure. Hypertension 2006; 47:352.

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8. Literatur Weitere Antihypertensiva

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8.2 ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002; 288:2981.

8.3 Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB, et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. J Clin Hyperten (Greenwich). 2014;16:14-26

8.4 American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel, “American Geriatrics Society Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults,” J Am Geriatr Soc, 2012, 60:616-31

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9. Literatur Einleitung einer antihypertensiven Therapie

9.1 Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, et al. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. The Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:914.

9.2 Law MR, Morris JK, Wald NJ. Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies. BMJ 2009; 338:b1665

9.3 Neaton JD, Grimm RH Jr, Prineas RJ, et al. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study. Final results. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study Research Group. JAMA 1993; 270:713.

9.4 Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK, et al. Combination therapy versus monotherapy in reducing blood pressure: meta-analysis on 11,000 participants from 42 trials. Am J Med 2009; 122:290.

9.5 Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens 2014; 32:3.

9.6 Williams B, Poulter NR, Brown MJ, et al. British Hypertension Society guidelines for hypertension management 2004 (BHS-IV): summary. BMJ 2004; 328:634.

9.7 Dickerson JE, Hingorani AD, Ashby MJ, et al. Optimisation of antihypertensive treatment by crossover rotation of four major classes. Lancet 1999; 353:2008.

9.8 Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration, Turnbull F, Neal B, et al. Effects of different regimens to lower blood pressure on major cardiovascular events in older and younger adults: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2008; 336:1121.

9.9 Jamerson K, Weber MA, Bakris GL, Dahlöf B, Pitt B, Shi V, Hester A, Gupte J, Gatlin M, Velazquez EJ; ACCOMPLISH Trial Investigators. Benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension in high-risk patients. N Engl  J Med. 2008;359:2417-28.

9.10 Appel LJ. The verdict from ALLHAT–thiazide diuretics are the preferred initial therapy for hypertension. JAMA 2002; 288:3039.

9.11 Mancia G, Fagard R et al (2013) ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 34(28):2159–2219

9.12 Kasiakogias A, Tsioufis C, Thomopoulos C, et al. Evening versus morning dosing of antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients with sleep apnoea: a cross-over study. J Hypertens 2015; 33:393.

9.13 Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Fernández JR, Calvo C. Chronotherapy improves blood pressure control and reverts the nondipper pattern in patients with resistant hypertension. Hypertension 2008; 51:69.

9.14 Hermida RC, Calvo C, Ayala DE, et al. Administration time-dependent effects of valsartan on ambulatory blood pressure in elderly hypertensive subjects. Chronobiol Int 2005; 22:755.

9.15 Minutolo R, Gabbai FB, Borrelli S, et al. Changing the timing of antihypertensive therapy to reduce nocturnal blood pressure in CKD: an 8-week uncontrolled trial. Am J Kidney Dis 2007; 50:908.

10. Literatur Systolische Hypertonie bei älteren Patienten

10.1 Franklin SS, Larson MG, Khan SA, et al. Does the relation of blood pressure to coronary heart disease risk change with aging? The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2001; 103:1245.

10.2 Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L, et al. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Lancet 1997; 350:757.

10.3 Bangalore S, Qin J, Sloan S, et al. What is the optimal blood pressure in patients after acute coronary syndromes?: Relationship of blood pressure and cardiovascular events in the PRavastatin OR atorVastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (PROVE IT-TIMI) 22 trial. Circulation 2010; 122:2142.

10.4 Vokó Z, Bots ML, Hofman A, et al. J-shaped relation between blood pressure and stroke in treated hypertensives. Hypertension 1999; 34:1181.

10.5 Somes GW, Pahor M, Shorr RI, et al. The role of diastolic blood pressure when treating isolated systolic hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159:2004.

11. Literatur Hypertonie und kardiovaskuläre Begleiterkrankungen

12. Literatur Hypertonie und Diabetes mellitus

13. Literatur Hypertonie und Niereninsuffizienz

14. Literatur Hypertonie und Demenz

14.1 Rönnemaa E, Zethelius B, Lannfelt L, Kilander L. Vascular risk factors and dementia: 40-year follow-up of a population-based cohort. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011;31:460-6.

14.2 Qiu C, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. The age-dependent relation of blood pressure to cognitive function and dementia. Lancet Neurol. 2005;4(8):487–99

14.3 Morris MC, Scherr PA, Hebert LE et al. Association of incident Alzheimer’s disease and blood pressure measured from 13 years before to 2 years after diagnosis in a large community study. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1640–46

14.4 Launer LJ, Masaki K, Petrovitch H et al. The association between midlife blood pressure levels and late-life cognitive function. JAMA. 1995;274:1846–51

14.5 Knecht S, Wersching H, Lohmann H et al. High-normal blood pressure is associated with poor cognitive performance. Hypertension. 2008;51: 663–8

14.6 Kalaria RN. Vascular basis for brain degeneration: faltering controls and risk factors for dementia. Nutr Rev. 2010;68 Suppl 2:S74–87

15. Literatur Hypertonie in der Schwangerschaft

15.1 Cunningham FG, Lindheimer MD. Hypertension in pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:927-32.

15.2 Walker JJ. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet. 2000;356:1260-5.

15.3 Cooper WO, Hernandez-Diaz S, Arbogast PG, Dudley JA, Dyer S, Gideon PS, Hall K, Ray WA. Major congenital malformations after first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2443-51.

16. Literatur Hypertensive Krise und hypertensiver Notfall

16.1 Bur A: Hypertensiver Notfall und hypertensive Krise. Notfall Rettungsmedizin 2009;3: 227-236

17. Literatur Therapieresistente Hypertonie

17.1 Calhoun DA, Jones D, Textor S, et al. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension 2008; 51:1403.

17.2 de la Sierra A, Segura J, Banegas JR, Gorostidi M, de la Cruz JJ, Armario P, Oliveras A, Ruilope LM. Clinical features of 8295 patients with resistant hypertension classified on the basis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Hypertension. 2011 May;57(5):898-902.

17.3 Moser M, Setaro JF. Clinical practice. Resistant or difficult-to-control hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 27;355(4):385-92.

17.4 Vongpatanasin W. Resistant hypertension: a review of diagnosis and management. JAMA 2014; 311:2216.

17.5 James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA 2014; 311:507

17.6 Kassel LE, Odum LE. Our own worst enemy: pharmacologic mechanisms of hypertension. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2015; 22:245.

17.7 Grossman E, Messerli FH. Drug-induced hypertension: an unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension. Am J Med 2012; 125:14.

17.8 Boudville N, Ward S, Benaroia M, House AA. Increased sodium intake correlates with greater use of antihypertensive agents by subjects with chronic kidney disease. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18:1300.

17.9 Pierdomenico SD, Lapenna D, Bucci A, et al. Cardiovascular outcome in treated hypertensive patients with responder, masked, false resistant, and true resistant hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18:1422.

17.10 Hanselin MR, Saseen JJ, Allen RR, et al. Description of antihypertensive use in patients with resistant hypertension prescribed four or more agents. Hypertension 2011; 58:1008.

17.11 Calhoun DA, Jones D, Textor S, Goff DC, Murphy TP, Toto RD, White A, Cushman WC, White W, Sica D, Ferdinand K, Giles TD, Falkner B, Carey RM; American Heart Association Professional Education Committee. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis,  evaluation, and treatment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Circulation. 2008 Jun 24;117(25):e510-26.

17.12 Khosla N, Chua DY, Elliott WJ, Bakris GL. Are chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide equivalent blood-pressure-lowering medications? J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2005; 7:354.

17.13 Agarwal R, Sinha AD, Pappas MK, Ammous F. Chlorthalidone for poorly controlled hypertension in chronic kidney disease: an interventional pilot study. Am J Nephrol 2014; 39:171.

17.14 Václavík J, Sedlák R, Plachy M, et al. Addition of spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension (ASPIRANT): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hypertension 2011; 57:1069.

17.15 Alvarez-Alvarez B, Abad-Cardiel M, Fernandez-Cruz A, Martell-Claros N. Management of resistant arterial hypertension: role of spironolactone versus double blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. J Hypertens 2010; 28:2329.

17.16 Calhoun DA, White WB. Effectiveness of the selective aldosterone blocker, eplerenone, in patients with resistant hypertension. J Am Soc Hypertens 2008; 2:462.

17.17 Khosla N, Kalaitzidis R, Bakris GL. Predictors of hyperkalemia risk following hypertension control with aldosterone blockade. Am J Nephrol 2009; 30:418.

17.18 Bhatt DL, Kandzari DE, O’Neill WW et al; SYMPLICITY HTN-3 Investigators (2014) A controlled trial of renal denervation for resistant hypertension. N Engl J Med 370(15):1393–1401

17.19 Symplicity HTN-2 Investigators, Esler MD, Krum H et al (2010) Renal sympathetic denervation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (The Symplicity HTN-2 Trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 376(9756):1903–1909

17.20 Krum H, Schlaich M, Whitbourn R et al (2009) Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension: a multicentre safety and proof-of-principle cohort study. Lancet 373(9671):1275–1281

17.21 Bobrie G, Frank M, Azizi M, et al. Sequential nephron blockade versus sequential renin-angiotensin system blockade in resistant hypertension: a prospective, randomized, open blinded endpoint study. J Hypertens 2012; 30:1656.

17.22 Faselis C, Kokkinos P, Anyfanti P et al (2014) Carotid baroreceptor stimulation: a promising approach for the management of resistant hypertension and heart failure. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 12(1):30–37

17.23 Davis MI, Filion KB, Zhang D, et al. Effectiveness of renal denervation therapy for resistant hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62:231.

17.24 Bakris GL, Nadim MK, Haller H, et al. Baroreflex activation therapy provides durable benefit in patients with resistant hypertension: results of long-term follow-up in the Rheos Pivotal Trial. J Am Soc Hypertens 2012; 6:152.

17.25 Heusser K, Tank J, Engeli S, et al. Carotid baroreceptor stimulation, sympathetic activity, baroreflex function, and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2010; 55:619.

17.26 Scheffers IJ, Kroon AA, Schmidli J, et al. Novel baroreflex activation therapy in resistant hypertension: results of a European multi-center feasibility study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56:1254.

17.27 Messerli FH, Bangalore S. Renal denervation for resistant hypertension? N Engl J Med 2014; 370:1454.

17.28 Mahfoud F, Ukena C, Schmieder RE, et al. Ambulatory blood pressure changes after renal sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension. Circulation 2013; 128:132.

17.29 Azizi M, Sapoval M, Gosse P, et al. Optimum and stepped care standardised antihypertensive treatment with or without renal denervation for resistant hypertension (DENERHTN): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015; 385:1957.

17.30 Bhatt D, Kandzari D, O’Neill W A controlled trial of renal denervation for resistant hypertension. N Engl J Med 2014; 370: 1393–1401

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